PAKISTAN-AFGHANISTAN RELATIONS

The key principles of Pakistan’s policy towards Afghanistan include strengthening people-to-people contacts,deepening trade and transit ties, undertaking joint connectivity and energy projects for enhanced economic integration, working together for bringing peace in Afghanistan, non-interference in the internal affairs and not allowing respective territories to be used against each other.
Building close cooperative relations with Afghanistan is a high priority of Pakistan’s foreign policy and a vital component of our vision of a “peaceful neighbourhood.” Pakistan continues its efforts for forging a friendly and good-neighbourly relationship with Afghanistan, on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity. Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi undertook his maiden foreign visit to Kabul highlighting the importance that Pakistan attaches to its relations with Afghanistan. In pursuance of its policy of attending all international forum geared towards bringing peace, stability and development in Afghanistan, Pakistan participated in the meetings of Kabul Process-I&II, RECCA, Moscow Format on Afghanistan, SCO Contact Group on Afghanistan, International Contact Group on Afghanistan, Six Party Talks and others.

High Level Exchanges:

Through various High Level Exchanges, such as President Ashraf Ghani’s visit to Islamabad (27-28 June 2019) and Foreign Minister of Pakistan’s three visits to Kabul (his maiden foreign visit was to Kabul on 15 September 2018), Pakistan and Afghanistan have continuously strengthened the bilateral relations of amity and brotherhood.

Pakistan’s Development Assistance

In June last year, Pakistan’s development assistance to Afghanistan reached US$ 1 billion. The country’s development assistance is geared towards investment in infrastructure, education, health, agriculture and capacity building of Afghan professionals. Pakistan has setup healthcare facilities in Afghanistan including three hospitals, i.e., 200-bed Jinnah Hospital Kabul, 80-bed Nishtar Kidney Center in Jalalabad and 100-bed Naib Aminullah Khan Logar Hospital. Jinnah hospital Kabul and Nishtar Kidney center have been handed over to Afghanistan. Pakistan’s infrastructure projects in Afghanistan include Torkham-Jalalabad Road (75 Km), Torkham-Jalalabad Additional Carriage way (73 Km), 15 Weigh Bridges, donation of road construction machinery, construction of internal road in Jalalabad and donation of telecom and electricity system. Besides providing scholarships to almost 4000 Afghan students, Pakistan has constructed Rehman Baba School and Hostel in Kabul, Allama Iqbal Faculty of Arts at Kabul University, Sir Syed Science Block at Nangarhar University Jalalabad and Liaqat Ali Khan Engineering Block at Balkh University in Mazar-e-Sharif. Pakistan is also providing 3,000 fully-funded scholarships to Afghan students. Selection test of the first batch of the Afghan students for 3,000 scholarships was conducted last year. Responding to demand from Afghanistan, we have added categories of Masters and PhD programs. of 3000 students was made in Pakistan has pledged US $ 2 million for the Afghan students to pursue business management degrees at the Lahore University of Management Science (LUMS). Around 50,000 Afghans who studied in our educational institutions are currently serving their country. Pakistan is also assisting Afghanistan in capacity building in the fields of agriculture, banking, railways, military and diplomacy. The government initiated capacity building projects for Afghan healthcare professionals, under which 59 Afghan medical professionals including doctors, nurses, and technicians successfully completed their training in 2017. In addition, 42 Afghan healthcare professionals have started training at Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar.

Trade and Economic Relations

The two countries have substantial trade linkages. Pakistan is Afghanistan ‘s largest trade partner. According to Afghanistan Central Statics Organization (CSO), Ministry of Finance, during Afghanistan’s FY 2018 (22 December 2017- 21 December 2018), Pak- Afghan bilateral trade remained the highest and reached US$ 1,437 million followed by Afghanistan- Iran at US$ 1,284 million and China at US$ 1,098. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS) has reported an increase of 18.33% in Pakistan’s export to Afghanistan in year 2017-18 (July-June) over preceding corresponding year (2016-17) i.e. from US$1,171 to US$ 1,476 million. The two sides have the following institutional mechanisms in the domain of trade and economic cooperation: a). Afghanistan Pakistan Transit Trade Cooperation Authority (APTTCA) b). Pak-Afghan Joint Chamber of Commerce & Industry c). Pakistan-Afghanistan Joint Business Council d). Joint Economic Commission (JEC) e). Afghan-Pakistan Action Plan for Peace and Solidarity (APAPPS)

Afghan Refugees

Pakistan has hosted millions of Afghan refugees for the last four decades. There are around 2.8 million Afghan refugees currently living in Pakistan.

Pakistan is working with Afghanistan and international organization i.e. UNHCR and IOM for their safe, dignified, sustainable and voluntary return to their homeland under various UN strategies (SSAR).
Pakistan- Austria Relations

Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Austria have been friendly and cooperative ever since Pakistan formally recognized Austria and established diplomatic ties in 1956. The Pakistan Embassy in Vienna was established in August 1965, completing 50 years of diplomatic relations in 2006. Austria opened its honorary consulate in Karachi on 1 March 2015 to further strengthen bilateral ties and economic relations.

Political Relations

  1. The former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif met Karlheinz Kopf, the Second President of the National Council of Austria on 26 November 2016 in Ashgabat on the side lines of Global Sustainable Transport Conference. The former Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi met Federal Chancellor of Austria Sebastian Kurz in China’s Hainan province on the sidelines of BOAO Forum for Asia on 10 April 2018 and invited Chancellor Kurz to visit Pakistan. President AJK Sardar Masood Khan during his visit to Vienna from 27-31 May 2018 had useful interaction with Austrian think-tanks and emphasized that Jammu and Kashmir dispute can be resolved through dialogue and diplomacy within the framework of the United Nations.

Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. The two sides hold regular Bilateral Political Consultations. The 4th round of Pakistan-Austria Bilateral Political Consultations was held in Vienna on 28 March 2019. The two sides discussed the entire spectrum of relations including, political, economic, trade and investment, education and people-to-people contacts.

Economic Cooperation

  1. The bilateral trade in 2018 stood at Euro 340.4 million. Pakistan’s exports reached an all-time high of Euro168.5 million and imports from Austria were recorded at Euro 171.9 million with trade deficit of Euro 3.4 million.

  2. Pakistan major exports to Austria have traditionally been cotton yarn and related products, leather and leather products, carpets, clothing surgical and sports goods. We also export smaller quantities of knitwear, iron ore, suitcases, bags and shoes, hand tools, fruits etc. Imports consist of chemicals, machinery and its components, spare parts, petroleum products, dairy and other food items. Over 200 Austrian companies export their products regularly to Pakistan. The vast majority of Austrian companies, however, are small and middle-sized. Because of capacity constraints, these companies are focused on the surrounding region and EU. Similarly, for import of goods, Austrian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have a preference for Germany and the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region.

  3. Several Austrian firms have brought investments to Pakistan, including, OMV. OMV is the largest Austrian oil and gas exploration, processing and marketing firm in Pakistan. It established its office in Islamabad in 1991. OMV is also the largest international investor in the energy sector in Pakistan with total investments of over 2.5 billion US dollars including joint ventures.

  4. Technischer Überwachungs-Verein (TÜV), a 145-year old company, has a “Bureau of Inspection & Certification” in Lahore with a branch office in Karachi. It also has 49 percent shares in Moody International Pakistan. TÜV is involved in certification, inspection and training provisions of industry, energy, infrastructure, and transportation, which play an important role in increasing Pakistan’s exports, particularly to Europe, USA, Far East Asia and the Middle East.

Education Cooperation

  1. There are about 40 Pakistani students in various universities of Austria. Pakistani students have left a very positive impression in their universities and faculties through their hard work. The KPK Government is working on a project with seed money of Rs 270 million for 2016 and total worth of US$ 90 million to establish an institute in Haripur in collaboration with six universities of Austria. The institute is expected to have various polytechnic departments and the degrees will be awarded by the Austrian Universities for respective disciplines.

Pakistani Community in Austria

  1. There are approximately 10,000 Pakistanis living in Austria. Major concentrations of Pakistanis in Austria are in Vienna, Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Salzburg and Styria.

Pakistan-Belarus Relations

Brief

Pakistan recognized Belarus in December 1991 and formal diplomatic relations were established in February 1994. There is convergence of views between the two countries on a host of regional and international issues.

Political Relations

  1. Bilateral relations developed at an accelerated pace in last few years, with frequent high level exchanges. Four high level visits have taken place between the two sides: President Lukashenko visited Pakistan twice (from 28-29 May 2015 and 04-06 October 2016) and Prime Minister Andrei Kobyakov paid an official visit to Pakistan from 9-11 November 2015.

  2. Prime Minister Imran Khan held a meeting with President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko on the sidelines of SCO Council of Heads of State in Bishkek in June 2019.

Institutional Mechanisms

  1. Pakistan and Belarus have developed several institutional mechanisms for cooperation in diverse fields. The two countries hold Annual Political Consultations at the Additional Secretary/Deputy Foreign Minister level to review the entire spectrum of bilateral relationship. The latest (third) round was held in Minsk from 11-12 May 2017.

  2. Pursuant to the Inter-Governmental Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation of May 1997, the two countries have established a Joint Commission on Trade and Economic Cooperation (JEC) at Ministerial level. It held its fifth meeting in Grodno from 15-16 November 2017.

  3. Other institutional mechanisms include: (i) Joint Commission on Science and Technology (JCST); (ii) Joint Working Group on Industrial Cooperation; and (iii) Joint Working Group on Agricultural Cooperation. A Joint Working Group on Healthcare and Pharmaceutics has been established. An Inter-Governmental Commission on Military and Technical Cooperation has also been established, which has held two sessions.

  4. The two sides have established inter-parliamentary linkages in the form of friendship groups in their respective parliaments. A Joint Business Council (JBC) has also been established, which has held three sessions so far; first in Islamabad in May 2015, second in Minsk in August 2015; and third in Karachi on 11 March 2016.

  Trade, Business and Investment Cooperation

  1. The bilateral trade in 2018 amounted to US $ 49.90 million. Pakistan’s exports to Belarus were US $ 13.48 million, while imports stood at US $ 36.42 million. The balance of trade has remained in favour of Belarus during the last eight years.

  2. Pakistan’s major items of export to Belarus include cereals, textiles, articles of apparel, fruits and vegetables, and pharmaceuticals. Major items of import from Belarus include petroleum, tractors, machinery and auto parts, and synthetic fiber.

  3. Given the Belarusian expertise in building of heavy machinery and equipment, and the consequent opportunity it offers to Pakistani entrepreneurs, the two sides are closely collaborating to establish joint production ventures of automotive engineering, agricultural harvesting machinery, road construction machinery, dump trucks etc.

Educational and Vocational Training Cooperation

  1. Pakistan and Belarus have signed 19 agreements/MoUs in the field educational cooperation, including an MoU on Cooperation in the Field of Vocational Education, signed on 5 October 2016. In addition, several MoUs have been signed between universities/institutes and seven additional agreements are under process. Areas of cooperation include mutual recognition of degrees/certificates, admissions in respective universities, establishment of language training facilities, exchange of researchers, teachers and student, joint research, vocational training and skills development.

Scientific and Technological Cooperation

  1. Pakistan and Belarus have signed an Agreement on Science and Technology Cooperation and 3 MoUs in the sphere of scientific and technological cooperation. Areas of collaboration include long term cooperation between Science and Technology organizations in research and development, procedures as well as financing.

Culture Cooperation

  1. The two sides have so far signed 9 Agreement/MoUs each in the field of culture, information and media, and inter-regional cooperation (among respective provinces). Pursuant to the agreements/MoUs on cultural cooperation, the Belarusian side has established a Culture and Information Centre at the National Library of Pakistan in Islamabad while the Pakistan side is yet to establish the Centre in Minks due to funding issues.

Pakistan-Bosnia Relations

Brief

Pakistan recognized the independence of Bosnia from Yugoslavia in 1992 and contributed its troops as part of UN Peacekeeping forces to the former Yugoslavia during the war years. Bosnia acknowledges the special assistance provided by Pakistan during the Bosnian War of 1992-1995 and thereafter. Bosnia provided financial assistance and sent medical teams to Pakistan during 2005 earthquake.

Political Relations

  1. Prime Minister Imran Khan met with President Sefik Dzaferovic of Bosnia on the sidelines of 14th OIC Summit in Makkah in May 2019. During the meeting, the Prime Minister extended an invitation to the President of Bosnia to visit Pakistan. The President of Bosnia accepted the invitation.

Economic and Trade Relations

  1. According to statistics from Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, the total bilateral trade in 2018 was US$ 1.66 million. Major exports of Bosnia include metals, clothing and wood products. Major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs.

Financial Assistance to Bosnia & Herzegovina

  1. Pakistan has been extending various credit facilities and financial assistance to Bosnia in the past. Such as Pakistan extended a loan of US$ 20 million to Bosnia in 1992 as export credit. This loan was written off in June 2005. Pakistan also provided a piece of land for construction of the Bosnian Embassy in Islamabad. US$ 1 million was given by Pakistan to help the flood victims in 2014. A plane load of relief goods was also sent to Bosnia.
 
Defence Cooperation

  1. The two sides are cooperating through exchange of high level visits, official delegations, offers of seats in training courses and contracts for defence related products. The Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were unified into a single entity in 2005, with the merger of the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Army of Republika Srpska, which had defended their respective regions. The Ministry of Defense was founded in 2004.

Cooperation in the fields of Education/ Science/Culture

  1. Pakistan and Bosnia have been pursuing educational and cultural cooperation. An Iqbal Chair has been set up at the University of Sarajevo. The focus of educational cooperation is on exchange of students & faculty members and acquiring foreign funded research projects. NUST and Sarajevo University have also exchanged visits and are developing cooperation in engineering field. Delegation of the Sarajevo University led by its Rector visited Pakistan in February, 2014 in response to the NUST’s delegation’s visit to Sarajevo in September, 2013.

Pakistan Community

  1. There is a very small Pakistani community in Bosnia and Herzegovina of around twenty to thirty Pakistanis. Most of them are married to Bosnian woman and have acquired Bosnian nationality. Some of them have their own small business set ups.

Pakistan-Bulgaria Relations

Brief on

Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established in 1965. Bulgaria opened its Embassy in Islamabad in 1968. However, Pakistan’s Mission remained closed in Bulgaria from 1980 to 2009, while the Bulgarian diplomatic mission continued to function. During the interregnum, Parep Bucharest received the concurrent accreditation of Bulgaria. Eventually, Pakistan reopened its Embassy in Sofia on 12 June 2009 and has been functioning since.
 
  1. There are three Honorary Consulates of Bulgaria in Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar. In 2015, both countries commemorated the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations during which Bulgaria issued a post card to mark the occasion.

Bilateral relations  

  1. There have been no high-level visits of Head of State or Head of Government from Pakistan. The former Bulgarian Foreign Minister Nikolay Mladenov visited Pakistan in January 2011. During the visit, Agreement on Economic Cooperation was signed between the two sides.

Parliamentary Friendship Group  

  1. A Pakistan-Bulgaria Parliamentary Friendship Group was established in Bulgaria’s National Assembly in 2009. A similar group was established in our National Assembly in 2010. There have been no exchanges of Parliamentary Friendship groups between the two sides. The Bulgarian side had invited its Pakistani counterparts to Bulgaria in October 2016 and November 2017. The visits, however, could not take place.

Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC)  

  1. The inaugural session of the BPC was held in Sofia on 7 April 2008. The last round was held in Sofia from 7-8 December 2017. The whole gamut of bilateral ties was discussed from the political, cultural, defence, economic and trade spheres. The 4th Round of the BPC is expected to be held in Islamabad in November 2019.

Trade and Investment  

  1. Pakistan-Bulgaria trade has traditionally remained low mainly because Bulgaria’s foreign trade is limited to a few markets, primarily EU, Russia and China. The total bilateral trade in 2018 was US$ 34.2 million. Pakistan’s exports were US$ 20.8 million while imports from Bulgaria were US$ 13.4 million.

Inter-governmental Commission on Economic Cooperation

  1. The inaugural session of Inter-Governmental Commission (IGC) was held in Sofia from 22-23 June 2015. Mr. Lyuben Petrov, Deputy Minister of Economy of Bulgaria and Mr. Omar Hamid Khan, Additional Secretary, EAD led their respective delegations.

  2. The second session of Intergovernmental Commission (IGC) was held in Islamabad from 21-22 May 2019. The session provided an important opportunity to review the existing cooperation in economic and trade fields and explore new areas of cooperation. The two sides also signed Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation.

Pakistan-Bulgarian Business Forum    

  1. Inaugural session of Pakistan-Bulgaria Business Forum was held in Sofia on 22 June 2015. Businessmen from Pakistan and Bulgaria, along with officials from the Ministry of Economy, BSEMPA and Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce attended the opening ceremony. Later, B-to-B meetings were held between the businessmen.

Education  

  1. An MoU between Government College University Lahore and Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski was concluded in 2017. This was followed by signing of collaboration agreements between Trakia University Stara Zagora and University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore; National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) and South-West University Neofit Rilksi, Sofia; and Agriculture University of Plovdiv and University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

  2. There are approximately 22 Pakistani students studying at various Bulgarian academic institutions.

Pakistani Community  

  1. The Pakistani community in Bulgaria is approximately 80 individuals. These include Pakistanis who have married Bulgarian nationals and are engaged in white-collar professions, especially in the IT sector.
Pakistan’s Relations with Canada

Pakistan and Canada established diplomatic relations in 1947. Both countries have resident Missions in each other’s capitals. The ties between the two countries are based on strong foundation of friendship and cooperation. In the early years of establishment of relationship, Canada contributed significantly to the economic development of Pakistan.  

  1. Pakistan-Canada annual trade in goods and services since 2017 is hovering around CAD 1.5 billion. Pakistan’s exports to Canada (70 percent textiles) value over 450 million CAD. Canada’s exports to Pakistan (60 percent oilseeds and lentils) are around 650 million CAD.
 
  1. There are separate Pakistan-Canada Friendship Groups in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan. Similarly, the Parliament of Canada has a Canada-Pakistan Parliamentary Friendship Group.
 
  1. Over 400,000 strong Pakistani community is living in Canada and contributing to the economic and social life of the diverse Canadian society. Many Canadians of Pakistani origin are also actively participating in the political activities.
 
  1. A large number of Pakistani students (around 4000) are also studying in Canada. Recently, the Canadian Government has included Pakistan in the Student Direct Stream program where students can get the Canadian study visa on fast track basis.

PAKISTAN AND CHINA DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS

Pakistan and China established diplomatic relations on 21 May 1951.

 

This relationship has built on the strength of its successive achievements, and has become formidable with each passing day and year. The leadership of both countries is committed to taking this relationship forward.

 

To understand the depth of this unique relationship, here is a glimpse of the milestones reached over the years:

 

Milestones / Key Developments:

 

1951

The two countries establish diplomatic relations

1955

Visit of Vice President Madam Song Ching Ling to Pakistan

1956

Visit of Prime Minister H.S. Suhrawardy to China

1963

 

Visit of Foreign Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to China

1963

Pakistan and China concludes boundary agreement through peaceful negotiations

1964

Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) starts its flights to Beijing, becoming the first non-communist country airline to fly from Beijing

1965

Agreement on Cultural Cooperation signed

1970

 

Pakistan facilitates first visit by US President Nixon to China, paving way for the first ever US-China official contact

1976

Agreement on Scientific and Cultural Cooperation signed

1978

The Karakoram Highway, a construction miracle, linking the mountainous Northern Pakistan with Western China officially opens

1983

Pakistan and China sign MoU on Educational Exchanges

1989

The two countries sign an agreement on Reciprocal Encouragement and Protection of Investments

1995

Agreement for Traffic in Transit is signed between the Governments of Pakistan, China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

1995

Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto visits China as a special guest to attend the 4th Women’s Conference in Beijing

1999

The contract to jointly develop and produce JF-17 was signed

2001

Premier Zhu Rongji visits Pakistan on the occasion of 50 years of establishment of Diplomatic Relations

2001

China and Pakistan sign agreement on Tourism Cooperation

2003

Preferential Trade Agreement is signed between the two countries

2005

Bilateral MoU on Cooperation in Information Technology is concluded

2005

Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits Pakistan

2005

“Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighborly Relations” is signed between the two countries

2006

Chinese President Hu Jintao pays an official visit to Pakistan

2006

China and Pakistan sign Free Trade Agreement

2008

Pakistan welcomes the Chinese Olympic Torch in Islamabad

2010

Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits Pakistan

2010

JF-17 inducted in Pakistan Air Force

2013

Premier Li Keqiang visits Pakistan in May and both sides issue a Joint Statement on Deepening Comprehensive Strategic Cooperation

2013

Pakistan and China sign the landmark Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation for the Long-term Plan on China-Pakistan Economic Corridor

2013

Pakistan awards a contract for construction and operation of Gwadar Port to China

2013

Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz Sharif visits China and both sides agree to Common Vision for Deepening China-Pakistan Strategic Cooperative Partnership in the New Era

2013

Both countries sign Memorandum of Understanding on the Cooperation of Developing China-Pakistan Economic Corridor Long-term Plan and Action

2014

The governments of Pakistan and China agree on the construction of 27 km Orange Line metro train project in Punjab

2015

Chinese President Xi Jinping visits Pakistan. The two sides conclude more than 50 agreements in infrastructure, energy and industrial development

2015

 

The two countries celebrate 2015 as the Year of Friendly Exchanges 2015 – Trade between the two countries reaches US $16 billion

2015

Chinese President Xi Jinping undertakes a landmark visit to Pakistan, both countries signed over 50 documents including agreement on CPEC outlining projects worth 46 USD.

2016

The two countries 65th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations.

2016

China-Pakistan unveils the Long-term Plan of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

2017

Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif attends the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in Beijing.

2018

Prime Minister Imran Khan pays a historic visit China and both sides agree to further strengthen All-Weather Strategic Cooperative Partnership and jointly build Closer China-Pakistan Community of Shared Future in the New Era. 

2018

CPEC enters in its Second Phase

2018

Phase-II of China-Pakistan Free Trade Agreement was signed

2018

Prime Minister Imran Khan attends the First China International Import Expo (CIIE) in Shanghai.

2018

Groundbreaking of Rashakai Special Economic Zone

2018

Pakistan launches Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (PRSS-1) from China’s Jiuquan Satellite Centre

2019

Prime Minister Imran Khan visits China to attend the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation

2019

The two sides celebrate 2019 as the year of sister-city / province 

2019

Pakistan hosts the Third China-Afghanistan-Pakistan Trilateral Foreign Ministers Dialogue in Islamabad

 

Pakistan and China enjoy close and friendly relations since the establishment of diplomatic relations in May 1951. Pakistan was one of the first countries that recognized the People’s Republic of China. Over the years, the relationship has blossomed into an “All-Weather Strategic Cooperative Partnership”. Pakistan considers China as one of its closest friend and partner and China considers Pakistan as its “Iron Brother”.

 

The bilateral relationship between the two neighboring countries is characterized by feelings of mutual trust, respect and goodwill towards each other. There is a regular exchange of visits at the highest level between the two countries. The strategic cooperation between Pakistan and China has grown over the past several decades.

 

Economically, China is Pakistan’s largest trading partner and a major investor, especially in infrastructure and energy sector. During 2018, bilateral trade between the two countries reached US$ 18 billion. With the official launch of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), the bilateral relationship has been elevated to a higher level. CPEC is a flagship project of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s initiative of “One Road and One Belt”. It aims at enhancing connectivity and improving infrastructure between Pakistan and China. Several projects are being implemented under CPEC, for enhancement of infrastructure and generation of energy. People-to-people contacts are an important aspect of the bilateral relationship. The year of 2015 was celebrated as the Year of Friendly Exchanges between Pakistan and China and several high profile events were organized including seminars, exchange of visits and cultural events to highlight people-to-people interactions.

 

High Level Visits:

 

High Level visits are the hallmark of China-Pakistan bilateral relations.

 

Prime Minister’s Visit to China (7-9 October 2019):

 

Prime Minister Imran Khan visited China from 7-9 October 2019 at the invitation of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang. During the visit, the Prime Minister met with President Xi Jinping, Premier Li Keqiang and Chairman NPC Li Zhanshu. The Prime Minister was a Chief Guest at the Beijing International Horticulture Expo-2019 along-with Premier Li Keqiang. In addition, the Prime Minister also met with CEOs/Heads of leading Chinese enterprises. Both sides signed a number of MoUs/Agreements. It was Prime Minister Imran Khan’s third visit to China since assuming office in August 2018.

 

Chinese Vice President’s Visit to Pakistan (26-28 May 2019):

 

Chinese Vice President Wang Qishan visited Pakistan from 26-28 May 2019. He called on the President and held bilateral talks with the Prime Minister. During the visit, the Nishan-e-Pakistan was conferred upon the Vice President in a special investiture ceremony. Moreover, several MoUs and projects were signed and inaugurated. The Vice President also visited Lahore, where he met with Chief Minister Punjab and Governor Punjab. The Vice President also toured Pakistan’s cultural sites, including Taxila Museum, Lahore Fort and Badshahi Mosque.

 

Prime Minister’s Visit to China (25-28 April 2019):

 

The Prime Minister visited China from 25-28 April 2019 to participate in the 2nd Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation. He delivered a speech at the Opening Ceremony of BRF on 26 April and participated in the Leaders Roundtable on 27 April. During the visit, the Prime Minister held meetings with President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang in which the entire range of bilateral relationship, including implementation of Phase-II of CPEC, was discussed. Both sides reaffirmed their resolve to further strengthen the All-Weather Strategic Cooperative Partnership. Both sides also discussed important regional and international issues, including peace and reconciliation in Afghanistan and peace and stability in South Asia, and agreed to deepen cooperation at the multilateral fora. The Prime Minister attended a Pakistan Business and Investment Forum attended by leading businessmen of Pakistan and China. 14 B2B agreements were also signed. He also attended the opening ceremony of the Beijing International Horticulture Exhibition. During the visit, 7 new MoUs were signed on a range of bilateral issues, including the Second Phase of Pakistan-China FTA, Completion of Preliminary Design of ML-1, Rashakai SEZ Joint Venture, Socio-Economic Cooperation, Economic and Technical Cooperation and Cooperation in Marine Sciences.

 

Prime Minister’s Visit to China (2-5 November 2018):

 

Prime Minister Imran Khan had paid his first official visit to China on 2-5 November 2018. In Beijing, he had met with President Xi Jinping, Premier Li Keqiang, Chairman Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC), Li Zhanshu and Vice President Wang Qishan. He had also met with Minister of International Department of the CPC Central Committee, Song Tao, Chairman of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and had interactions with leading corporate leaders of China. In Shanghai, the Prime Minister had attended the opening ceremony of the 1st China International Import Expo (CIIE).

 

The two sides reached a number of important understandings and long-term consensus, reiterated strong commitment to bilateral relations and the leaders developed good rapport for future cooperation. During the visit, two sides had signed fifteen (15) agreements/MoUs on a range of bilateral issues, including transfer of sentenced persons, poverty reduction, agriculture, socio-economic development, and cooperation in combating illicit traffic in drugs.

 

Other Visits:

 

Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif paid an official visit to Zhengzhou from 14-15 December 2015, to participate in the SCO Summit. During the visit, he met with Premier Li Keqiang. President Mamnoon Hussain visited Wuzhen from 16-18 December 2015, to participate in the 2nd World Internet Conference. During the visit he met with President Xi Jinping on 16 December.

 

On the invitation of Chinese leadership, President Mamnoon Hussain paid an official visit to China from 1-4 September, 2015, to participate in the commemoration ceremony of the 70th Anniversary of China’s victory in World War II. During the visit, delegation level talks were held with President Xi Jinping and Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli.

 

Chinese President Xi Jinping paid a historic State visit to Pakistan from 20-21 April 2015. During the visit, it was agreed to intensify cooperation under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. China pledged to invest US$46 billion in Pakistan’s energy and infrastructure sectors in Pakistan. President Xi was also awarded Pakistan’s highest civil award of ‘Nishan-e- Pakistan’ during the visit.

 

On the invitation of Chinese President Xi Jinping, Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif paid an official visit to Beijing from 7-8 November 2014 to participate in the “Dialogue on Strengthening Connectivity Partnership” during the 22nd APEC Summit. Prime Minister Sharif endorsed President Xi’s vision on regional connectivity and infrastructure development, stressing that Asia would need to strengthen both to excel in international arena.

 

President Mamnoon Hussain visited Shanghai from 19-22 May 2014, to attend the 4th Summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA). Pakistan’s participation in the CICA Summit at the highest political level sealed its endorsement of the vision of Asian collective security based on cooperation and dialogue.

 

President Mamnoon Hussain paid an official visit to China from 18-21 February 2014. The second Joint Coordination Committee (JCC) meeting on Economic Corridor Project (ECP) was held on the sidelines of the President’s visit.

 

Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif paid an official visit to China from 3-8 July 2013. This was Prime Minister’s first overseas visit after assuming office in June 2013. During the visit, the two sides concluded the MoU on China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

 

Premier Li Keqiang paid an official visit to Pakistan from 22-23 May 2013. It was the first visit of Premier Li Keqiang abroad after assuming office.

 

Other High Level Visits:

 

From Pakistan side, the other recent high-level exchanges include the meeting of Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi with State Councillor and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Wang Yi, in August 2019 and on the sidelines of the SCO Council of Foreign Ministers in May 2019. Earlier, the Foreign Minister had met with Wang Yi when he visited Beijing in March 2019 for the first session of Foreign Ministers’ Strategic Dialogue and later when he was in Beijing for the 2nd Belt and Road Forum in April 2019. The Foreign Minister also participated in Political Parties’ Dialogue between PTI and CPC and Political Parties Forum on CPEC. He also met Vice President Wang Qishan and Minister for IDCPC, Mr. Song Tao. Foreign Minister had earlier visited Beijing on 25 December 2018.

 

Former Foreign Secretary visited China on 8-11 April 2019 to formally launch the JWG on International Cooperation. The Foreign Secretary also met with Vice Minister Le Yucheng and Mr. Yang Jiechi, Director Foreign Affairs Commission of CPC. Bilateral ties between the two countries; Prime Minister’s visit to China for 2nd Belt and Road Forum (25-28 April 2019); current regional situation; and cooperation at multilateral fora were discussed during the visit.

 

The Deputy Chairman Senate, Saleem Mandviwalla, visited China from 17-19 April 2019 and held meetings with Shanghai Media Group, Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference Shanghai Committee, Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce, East China Central Factory of Bright Dairy. Previously, Chairman Senate visited China from 16-20 August 2018. Former President Mamnoon Hussain had visited China to attend the SCO Heads of State Summit in Qingdao in June 2018. Former Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi participated in the Boao Forum for Asia held on 8-11 April 2018.

 

From Chinese side, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi visited Pakistan in September 2019 to attend the Third China-Afghanistan-Pakistan Foreign Ministers Dialogue in Islamabad. Vice Chairman CMC Gen. Xu Qiliang visited Pakistan recently. 

 

Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Kong Xuanyou visited Pakistan on 6 March 2019. He discussed the regional situation with the Foreign Secretary and also called on Prime Minister Imran Khan, Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi and Chief of the Army Staff. Vice Foreign Minister Kong Xuanyou had earlier visited Pakistan to attend the first round of reconstituted Political Consultations between Pakistan and China on 10 December 2018.

 

The other high level visits from China included those of Mr. Gao Yunlong, Vice-Chairman Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) (13-16 February, 2019); visit of Mr. Zhang Chunxian, Vice Chairman of Standing Committee of National People’s Congress (NPC) in November 2018; visit of Mr. Song Tao, Minister for International Department of Communist Party of China (CPC) on 13-16 October; State Councillor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi’s visit (6-9 September); and visit of General Zhang Youxia, Vice Chairman of Central Military Commission of China in May 2018.

 

Consultation Mechanisms:

Pakistan and China have several Consultations mechanisms including Strategic Dialogue at Foreign Ministers’ level, Political Consultations at Foreign Secretary/Vice-Minister level; consultations on South Asia, Arms Control, Counter-terrorism; Human Rights; Peacekeeping; Maritime Dialogue; Border management consultations, and Consular affairs.

Defence Cooperation:

Pakistan-China Defence collaboration forms the backbone of the relationship. The cooperation spans high-level military exchanges, structured defence and security talks, joint exercises, training of personnel in each other’s institutions, joint defence production and defence trade. The militaries of the two countries have institutionalized three tiers of bilateral consultations to enable close cooperation at all levels. There is an extensive range of cooperation, including joint ventures, for the production of military equipment, aircraft, submarines and tanks. China is also the recipient of the largest number of military training officials from Pakistan.

Economic & Trade Relations:

 

China is currently Pakistan’s largest single trading partner; while Pakistan is China’s second largest trading partner in South Asia. Major imports from China include machinery and mechanical appliances, metals, chemical products, mineral ores, plastic scrap and transport equipment. Main exports include cotton yarn, cotton fabric, rice, leather and fish products.

 

In recent years, the bilateral trade volume between China and Pakistan has increased rapidly with stable commodity structure. However, despite robust investment from China, bilateral trade remains anemic. China’s imports from Pakistan reflect a downward trend whereas China’s exports to Pakistan are on an upward trajectory. Bilateral trade, which stood at US$ 1.3 billion in 2002, reached US$ 19.08 billion in 2018. Imports from China stood at US$ 16.90 billion and exports from Pakistan to China at US$ 2.17 billion.

 

 

 

 

Investment:

 

According to the State Bank of Pakistan Annual Report 2018, during FY 2018, China was the biggest investor in Pakistan with an investment of US$ 1.591 billion out of a total of US$ 2.537 billion which amounts to 63% of total FDI. With the initiation of CPEC, there has been an upsurge in investment flows into Pakistan especially in infrastructure and energy sectors.

 

China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC):

 

Pakistan and China have constituted a Joint Cooperation Committee (JCC) to implement CPEC. The JCC is co-chaired by Pakistan’s Federal Minister for Planning, Development and Reform and Vice-Chairman of China’s National Development and Reform Commission. It is supported by 8 Joint Working Groups covering the various areas of cooperation as follows:

 

       i.          Energy

     ii.          Transport Infrastructure

   iii.          Gwadar

   iv.          Special Industrial Zones

     v.          Planning & Finance

   vi.          Security

 vii.          Socio-Economic Development

viii.          International Cooperation. 

 

Eight JCC meetings have been held to date, with the last taking place on 20 December 2018. Next meeting of the JCC will be held in Islamabad.

Current Status of CPEC Projects:

 

Gwadar:

 

The Port and Free Zone of Gwadar are being operated by Chinese state-owned company China Overseas Port Holdings Co. Ltd. (COPHCL). The Port and First Phase of the Free Zone are already operational. Auxiliary projects include the Eastbay Expressway, the New Gwadar International Airport (NGIA), the Gwadar Friendship Hospital, and the Vocational and Technical Training Institute.

 

The 300 MW power plant at Gwadar is another significant project for the port city’s long-term growth. A fresh water treatment plant with an estimated cost of US$ 130 million is also part of the Gwadar Development Plan.

 

Energy

 

In Energy sector 5,320 MW of electricity has been added to the national grid while work on 7 projects with 4,170 MW is ongoing.

 

 

 

 

Transportation Infrastructure:

 

In infrastructure sector, a total of 1,544 KM roads have been completed. Another 1,456 KM are under construction.  

 

Optical Fiber:

 

Cross border optical fiber project stretching over 820 KM has been completed.

 

Industrial Capacity Cooperation:

 

Industrial capacity cooperation is an important component of CPEC, which can accelerate Pakistan’s industrialization process through adoption of the Chinese model of Special Economic Zones (SEZs). Thus far, three SEZs have been identified for fast-track development: (i) M-3 near Faisalabad, (ii) Dhabeji near Karachi, and (iii) Rashakai along the motorway between Peshawar and Islamabad. In May 2019, the Rashakai SEZ was inaugurated. Remaining two SEZs are at an advance stage.

 

Socioeconomic Development under CPEC

 

The JWG on Socioeconomic Development was established as a major outcome of the visit of the Prime Minister to China in November 2018. Projects under this cluster would cover all parts of Pakistan and would be financed with Chinese grants and interest-free loans. These projects would focus on the following six areas: (i) agriculture, (ii) education, (iii) medical treatment and health care, (iv) poverty alleviation, (v) water supply, and (vi) vocational training.

 

Other Socio-Economic Cooperation:

 

In recent years, Pakistan and China have intensified cooperation in socio-economic sector. The two sides have agreed to jointly design and develop two pilot projects for poverty alleviation.

 

Culture and People-to-People:

 

To enhance collaboration in the fields of film, television and publications, “The Executive Program for Cultural Agreement between the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People’s Republic of China for the year 2017-2021” was signed and concluded during the Minister for Information’s visit to China in February 2018.

 

Pakistan has also established sister-province relations with seven Chinese provinces and sister-city relations with 10 Chinese cities. Both sides have agreed to celebrate 2019 as the Year of Sister-city and Sister-province relationship between Pakistan and China. Minister for IPC Dr. Fehmida Mirza visited Beijing on 28March for inaugural ceremony to celebrate 2019 as year of sister city/provinces relations between Pakistan and China. The second event in this series is scheduled to be held in Islamabad later this year. Both sides have also established Youth Communication Committee for exchanges.

 

 

 

Education:

 

China has become one of the preferred destinations for Pakistani students in the world. There are about 28,000 Pakistani students in China. Most students are enrolled in Graduate and PhD programmes. Chinese government offers 7034 scholarships to Pakistani students. Currently, there are ten Pakistan Study Centers and eleven Urdu Language Departments in prominent Universities of China. The Chinese side has established four Confucius Institutes in Pakistan. A CPEC Consortium of Universities, that initially consisted of business schools of the top 9 Chinese and top 10 Pakistani universities, has been established as a platform for exchange of students, researchers and faculty for utilization under CPEC. The two sides are also exploring possible establishment of China-Pakistan Joint Working Group under the Proposed Executive Programme on Education Cooperation and Exchanges between China and Pakistan (2019-2023).

 

Cooperation in Science and Technology and Space Technology:

 

Cooperation in the field of Science and Technology between Pakistan and China is pursued under the framework of “Agreement on Scientific & Technical Cooperation” signed in May 1976. Cooperation initiatives areorganized through a total of 18 protocols signed alternately at Islamabad and Beijing. The 18th Protocol for S&T cooperation was signed on July 8, 2017 for a duration of 4 years.

Pakistan-Croatia

Brief
 
Pakistan enjoys friendly relations with Croatia and close cooperation at various international fora. Pakistan was among the first few countries to recognize the independence of Croatia.  Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established in 1994.  Pakistan’s Embassy in Zagreb (Croatia) was also accredited to Bosnia and Herzegovina during the 1992-1995 Bosnian war. The Embassy was shifted from Zagreb to Sarajevo (Bosnia & Herzegovina) in 1998.  The Croatian authorities shifted their Embassy from Islamabad to Tehran. This arrangement continues till today.  

  1. Croatia in an important country in the Balkans region. It joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.

Political Relations

  1. The leadership of both the countries is keen to further deepen the bilateral ties, which is manifested by contacts on the sidelines of international conferences/events between the two sides. The last high- level visit from Pakistan side took place when former Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Makhdoom Khusro Bakhtiar visited Croatia in May 2007.
 
Institutional Mechanism and Legal Framework  

  1. Pakistan and Croatia signed a MoU on Bilateral Consultations between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the Republic of Croatia on 01 June 2007 in Zagreb, Croatia. The inaugural session will be held on mutually convenient dates.
 
Economic Cooperation  

  1. Pakistan and Croatia signed a Business Cooperation Agreement between the FPCCI and the Croatian Chamber of Economy in 1996. The trade figures for the last five years are given below:
                                                            Value in million US$
Year Exports to Croatia Imports from Croatia Total
2013-2014 7.592 0.164 7.756
2014-2015 9.306 0.716 10.022
2015-2016 9.582 0.683 10.265
2016-2017 11.573 2.892 14.465
2017-2018 14.118 1.647 15.765
2018 11.67 5.0 16.67
Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics

Defence Cooperation  

  1. Pakistan has limited Defence cooperation with Croatia. No high level defence related visit has taken place in the recent past. Croatia has a very strong Navy in the region. Pakistan can explore possibilities of naval cooperation with Croatia. In this regard a high level naval visit from Pakistan can be beneficial.
 
Cooperation on Candidatures

  1. Pakistan and Croatia supports each other’s candidature on mutual arrangements, which is often done through the Offices of the Permanent Representatives.
 
Community  

  1. There is a very small Pakistani community in Croatia around ten to fifteen Pakistanis. Most of them are married to Croatian women and have acquired Croatian nationality. Some of them have their own small business set ups.
Pakistan-Czech Relations
Brief

Diplomatic Relations between Pakistan and former Czechoslovakia were established in 1950. Since then, bilateral relations have remained cordial and cooperative. In 1993, former Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved into two free and independent States, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and EU in 2004.

Political Relations

  1. The Prime Minister of former Czechoslovakia Marian Calfa visited Pakistan in December 1991. Czech Prime Minister Mirek Topolanek paid an official visit to Pakistan from 08-10 May 2007.

  2. Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Mirek Topolanek, paid an official visit to Pakistan from 08-10 May 2007 at the invitation of former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. Four MoUs including Establishment of Bilateral Cooperation between Health Institutions of the Czech Republic and Pakistan; Cooperation between the Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FPCCI) and the Economic Chamber of the Czech Republic; Cooperation between Academy of Sciences of Pakistan and the Czech Republic; Cooperation between the Foreign Service Academy of Pakistan and the Czech Diplomatic Academy were signed during the visit.
 
  1. The former Czech Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Martin Bartak, who was also Minister of Defence, visited Pakistan in March 2010. An MOU on Military Cooperation was signed between the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic and the Ministry of Defence of Pakistan. The Terms of Reference (TOR) of this MOU were signed on 23 November 2016 in Karachi.
 
  1. The former Prime Minister of Pakistan met with the Czech Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Pavel Belobradek, on the sidelines of Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague on 25 March 2014.
 
  1. A three member delegation of Czech-Pakistan Inter-Parliamentary Friendship Group visited Pakistan from 23 -29 June 2019. The delegation visited Islamabad and Lahore and held meetings with Speaker National Assembly; Chairman Senate and Advisor on Commerce; Textile, Industry & Production and Investment. The delegation was also accompanied by five member business delegation from RMT (electronics manufacturing company), LIAZ (trucks manufacturing) and Wero energy (Energy company).
 
Annual Bilateral Consultations between Foreign Ministries  

  1. The mechanism has been established since 2006. Eight rounds of Bilateral Political Consultations have been held so far. The 8thround was held in Islamabad from 13-14 March 2018. The Pakistan side was led by Additional Secretary (Europe) Ministry of Foreign Affairs Zaheer Janjua. During the consultations, the two sides reviewed the entire gamut of bilateral relations and explored possibilities of extending cooperation in political, economic, energy, educational and cultural sectors.
 
Economic and Trade Cooperation  

  1. The economic relations between the two countries are growing steadily. The total volume of trade between the two countries has reached US$ 245 million in 2018.
 
Educational Cooperation  

  1. Pakistan and the Czech Republic have had mutually beneficial cooperation arrangement in the field of education. Around 30-40 Pakistani students are studying in the Czech Republic in different fields. A Memorandum of Agreement between National Textile University and Technical University Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, was signed in 2008, which encouraged the exchange of students and faculty members between the two universities. At present, 20 Pakistani students are completing their doctorate studies in Textile University of Liberec at the Faculty of Textile Engineering.
 
Cooperation in Culture  

  1. The two countries have cultural links embodied in history. The Czech scientists and travellers had been visiting what is now Pakistan since the middle of 19th Century. The cultural exchanges and mutual inspiration intensified especially in the 1920s and 1930s. Works of famous Czech writers have been translated in Urdu.

  1. Both countries have signed Programme of Cooperation in Culture 2009-2011 on the occasion of 70th Anniversary of Pakistan’s independence.
 
Pakistani Community  

  1. There are around 615 Pakistanis in the Czech Republic, mostly businessmen, traders, students and professionals. A few are employed by multinationals.
Pakistan-Denmark bilateral relations

Brief

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Denmark were established soon after Pakistan achieved independence. Pakistan opened its Ambassador-level resident Mission in Copenhagen in November 1976. Denmark upgraded its Mission in Islamabad to Ambassador-level in September 2004.  

Political Relations

2.  The former Adviser to Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs Mr. Sartaj Aziz met his Danish Foreign Minister Kristen Jensen on the side-lines of Brussels Conference on Afghanistan on 5th October 2016. The Minsters discussed peace process in Afghanistan, regional security with respect to relations between India and Pakistan, Danish investment in wind power projects, Pakistan’s case for Nuclear Suppliers Group membership. The Adviser also invited Danish Foreign Minister to visit Pakistan.

3. The former Adviser to Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs met with Danish Foreign Minister Kristen Jensen on the side-lines of 11th ASEM Summit in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on 16 July 2016. The discussion covered bilateral trade and investment, Afghanistan and Pakistan’s membership of NSG.

4. The former Adviser to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs Sartaj Aziz also met his Danish counterpart on the sidelines of the 12th Asia Europe Foreign Ministers’ Meeting (ASEMFM12) in Luxembourg on 5-6 November 2015. The Danish Foreign Minister acknowledged Pakistan’s sacrifices in the fight against terrorism, and noted the success achieved in recent counterterrorism operations. He also expressed support to Pakistan’s efforts for economic revival and stressed the need to further strengthen trade and investment cooperation with Pakistan. He also expressed sympathies for the victims of earthquake that struck Pakistan in October 2015.

Bilateral Political Consultations

5. In order to institutionalize official bilateral interaction, an MoU on Bilateral Political Consultations was signed on 2 March, 2018 and the first round held the same day in Copenhagen (Denmark). Next round will be held in Islamabad on mutually agreed dates.

Bilateral Trade and Investment  

  1. The total volume of bilateral trade in fiscal year 2018 amounted to US$ 297.04 million. There are around 52 Danish companies with business interests in Pakistan. They include major companies like A.P. Møller/Maersk, F.L. Smidth, Beirholm, Eldan Recycling, Haldor Topsoe, Sanovo Technology, Borch Textile group, Wernerfelt Textile Company, Select A/S and KMC).
 
  1. An Agribusiness delegation focusing on food, agriculture and sustainability from Denmark visited Pakistan (Lahore and Karachi) on 13-16 January 2019. The Danish delegation comprised of companies like AAK, DS Triple, Foss, Jeros and Jimco. They held separate meetings with the representatives of Fauji Foods, BigBird, Mondelez, Dairyland besides undertaking visits to Venus Pakistan and Bunny’s Ltd.
 
  1. Denmark is world leader in wind-powered electricity generation. Pakistan Alternate Energy Development Board delegation visited Denmark in April 2005. In February 2015 an agreement of cooperation for establishment of four wind power projects (250 MW each) was signed between Government of Punjab and the Danish wind turbine manufacturer VESTAS. Gerard Carew Vice-President of VESTAS visited Pakistan in this regard. The company also signed an MoU with the Government of Sindh for establishment of a 100MW Wind Power project in Jhimpir wind corridor with the cost of US$ 260 million.
 
Defence Cooperation  

  1. There exists limited defence cooperation between the two countries. The Danish authorities expressed their interest in developing linkages between the NDU and the Royal Danish Defence College.

  2. Danish Fleet observers led by Col. Kim Schmidt, Defence Attache participated in the multinational AMAN-17 Naval Exercise held in the Pakistani waters on 10-14 February 2017. It reinforced the two countries common resolve to promote peace and stability in the region, further increase cooperation to counter human trafficking, narcotic smuggling, piracy and terrorism in the region.

Pakistani Community  

  1. An estimated 30,000 Pakistanis are currently settled in Denmark. This number includes holders of British, Danish and other passports. Most Pakistanis arrived here in early 1970s when foreign nationals could enter Denmark without visa as guest workers. Due to subsequent restrictions on immigration, the number of fresh arrivals from Pakistan went down and Pakistani nationals could acquire resident status in Denmark only on the basis of family unification. Majority of early immigrants came from central and northern Punjab.
Pakistan’s Relations with Azerbaijan and Central Asian Countries

  Pakistan enjoys close and cordial relations with Azerbaijan and Central Asian Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan since their independence from former USSR in early 1990s. A brief overview of our bilateral relations is given below;

  1. Azerbaijan:
Both Pakistan and Azerbaijan enjoy close and cordial relations since latter’s independence in 1991. Both support each other at international arena and provide reciprocal support for Jammu & Kashmir dispute and Nagorno-Karabakh issue. Due to Azerbaijan, Pakistan does not recognize Armenia.

High-level visits
There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.

From Pakistan:
  • 2016– Former PM Muhammad Nawaz Sharif paid an official visit to Azerbaijan from 13-15 October 2016.
  • 2015- President Mamnoon Hussain visited Azerbaijan from 11-14 March, 2015.

From Azerbaijan:
  • 2017- Ilham Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan visited Islamabad to participate in the 13th ECO Summit held on 1 March 2017.

Trade and Economic

Azerbaijan is rich in minerals, with huge deposits of oil & gas reserves, that constitute 90% of its exports. It has proven reserves of 7 billion barrels of oil and 991 billion cubic meters of gas. During 2017-18, bilateral trade between Pakistan and Azerbaijan was USD.15.21 million. Pakistan exports rice, vegetables, fruits and fruit pulp, medical and pharmaceutical products, cotton fabrics and synthetic fabrics etc.to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan’s exports to Pakistan include raw cotton, chemicals, fats and oil, non-ferrous metals, etc.

Pakistan’s Trade with Azerbaijan – US $ Million
Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 12.44 2.77 15.21
2016-17 21.80 0.08 21.88
  1. Kazakhstan:

Pakistan was amongst the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with Kazakhstan soon after its independence in 1991. Both countries cooperate and offer reciprocal support on multilateral forums.

High-level visits

There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.

From Pakistan
  • 2019-Foreign Minister of Pakistan met with his Kazakh counterpart on the sidelines of the SCO CFM in Bishkek on 22nd May 2019.
  • 2017-President Mamnoon Hussain participated in the First OIC Summit on Science and Technology held in Astana, 9-12 September 2017. Mr. Sagintavey Bakytzhan Bakirovich, Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, called on him on 09 September 2017 on the margins of the Summit.
  • 2017– Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Astana on 08-10 June 2017 to attend the 17th Meeting of State Council of SCO and opening ceremony of Expo-2017.
  • 2015– Former PM Nawaz Sharif visited Astana from 25-26 August 2015. He met Prime Minister Karim Massimov and held talks with President Nursultan Nazarbayev.
  • 2011– Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani visited Nur Sultan on 6-7 September 2011 on a bilateral visit.
  • 2011– President Asif Ali Zardari visited Nur-Sultan (Former Astana) on 14-15 June 2011 to attend SCO Summit.

From Kazakhstan

  • 2019– Kazakh Foreign Minister, Mukhtar Tileuberdi called on Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi on the margins of the 74th UNGA in New York.
  • 2017- Askar Myrzakhmetov, Deputy Prime Minister of Kazakhstan visited Pakistan to attend the 13th ECO Summit on 1st March 2017.

Trade and Economics

Kazakhstan, a country of 18.75million people (2018 estimate), has a strong agrarian base and rich in mineral resources. The GDP is US$ 156.2 billion with per capita income of US $ 7,585. Proven reserves at 30 bn barrels (3.5% of world) of oil and 1918 bn cubic meter of gas. Major Kazakh products include Uranium, Chrome, Coal, Zinc, Gold, Iron, Silver, Cooper, Lead, Bauxite and Molybdenum. Pakistan’s exports mandarins, potatoes, medicine and medical equipment, textile items, cereals, sugar confectionary and articles of leather to Kazakhstan. Pakistan’s imports from Kazakhstan consist of articles of iron, steel and machinery parts. Lack of direct air link and visa issues are major barriers to trade, tourism and people to people contacts.

Pakistan’s Trade with Kazakhstan – US $ Million
Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 80.23 5.37 85.60
2016-17 44.10 4.53 48.63
 
  1. Kyrgyz Republic:
Pakistan enjoys close relations with Kyrgyz Republic. Our relationship is founded on mutual trust and closer cooperation at international arena.

High-level visits:

There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.  

From Pakistan
  • 2019- PM visited Bishkek to attend the SCO Heads of State Summit (June 2019). He held bilateral meetings with Kyrgyz.
  • 2019- Foreign Minister recently visited Bishkek to participated in the SCO Council of Foreign Ministers Meeting on 21-21 May, 2019. He also held sideline meeting with his Kyrgyz counterpart.
  • 2018– President of Pakistan met the President of Kyrgyz Republic in Turkey in October 2018 on the sidelines of the event commemorating the 95th anniversary of Turkey’s formation.
  • 2015- Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Kyrgyz Republic from 21-22 May 2015.
 
From Kyrgyz Republic
 
  • 2017-E. Jeenbekov Sooranbai, the then Prime Minister and now President of the Kyrgyz Republic visited Islamabad to participate in the 13th ECO Summit held on 1 March 2017.
  • 2017- Arzybek Kozhoshev, Minister of Economy of Kyrgyz Republic visited Pakistan to participate in the 3rd Session of Joint Ministerial Commission on 11-12 January 2017

Trade and Economic

Kyrgyz Republic is a small economy of 6 million people having GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) of USD. 21.5 billion, and foreign trade recorded as USD. 5.26 billion (est.2017). Pakistan’s exports to Kyrgyzstan include pharmaceuticals, rice, fruits & vegetables, garments, sports goods, surgical equipment etc. while Pakistan imports food items like honey and read beans, leather, wood and metal scrap etc. from the Kyrgyz Republic.Major economic sectorsare agriculture, energy (hydro-electricity), mining (gold, mercury, uranium, Natural Gas), textile, and food etc.  

Pakistan’s Trade with Kyrgyzstan – US $ Million
Year Exports Imports Total
2017-2018 1.20 0.00 1.21
2016-2017 1.05 00.08 1.13
 
  1. Tajikistan:

High-level visits:

There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.

From Pakistan

  • 2019– PM visited Bishkek to attend the SCO Heads of State Summit (June 2019). He held bilateral meetings with Tajik President.
  • 2019– Prime Minister met with the Tajik President on the sidelines of the One Belt One Road Forum held in Beijing on 26-27th April 2019.
  • 2018-The Foreign Minister of Pakistan visited Dushanbe on 11-12 October 2018 to participate in the 17th SCO Council of Heads of Government meeting.
  • 2018-The President of Pakistan visited Dushanbe from 19-22 June 2018 and also attended the High-level International Conference, Water for Sustainable Development.
  • 2017- Former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif ‘s visited Tajikistan on 5-6 July 2017.
  • 2017- A tripartite meeting between Prime Minister of Pakistan, the Tajik President and Afghan President Ashraf Ghani was held on 6 July 2017 in Dushanbe.
  • 2016– Former Prime Minister, Mr. Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Dushanbe, Tajikistan on 11-12 May 2016 to attend the Launching Ceremony of CASA-1000.
  • 2015– Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Dushanbe on 9-10 June 2015 to attend International Water Conference and for a bilateral working visit.
 
From Tajikistan

  • 2017-Tajik President Emomali Rahmon visited Islamabad on 28 February to 1 March 2017 to attend the 13th ECO Summit.
  • 2015-The Tajik President paid a high-level state visit to Pakistan on 11-13 November 2015
   
Trade and Economic

Tajikistan, a small economy comprising of 8.5 million people with GDP of USD. 6.95 billion, is a major producer of electricity. Pakistan plans to import 1000 MW from Tajikistan through CASA -1000. It also produces silver, gold, uranium and tungsten.Agriculture comprises 27 % of the GDP of Tajikistan and cotton is major agricultural produce. Pakistan’s exports sugar, dairy products, fruit and vegetables (potato, onion & orange), rice, textile products and minerals to Tajikistan. Our imports from Tajikistan include cotton fiber, fruit and vegetable & unprocessed hides.  

Pakistan’s Trade with Tajikistan – US $ Million
Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 7.85 5.82 13.67
2016-17 1.70 14.19 15.89
 
  1. Turkmenistan:
Both Pakistan and Turkmenistan enjoy close and cordial relations since latter’s independence. Pakistan established its diplomatic presence in Turkmenistan in 1991. Both countries closely cooperate at multilateral fora. However, due to its policy of ‘Permanent Neutrality’, Turkmenistan does not sides either with Pakistan or India on the Jammu & Kashmir Issue. It refrains from commenting on regional and global issues.

High-level visits:

There are frequent high-level exchanges of visits to and from Turkmenistan.

From Pakistan

  • 2018– Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Shahid Khaqan Abbasi visited Turkmenistan on 22-23 February 2018 to attend the link-up ceremony of TAPI pipeline and associated projects.
  • 2017– President of Pakistan visited Ashgabat to attend the opening ceremony of the V-Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games on 17 September 2017.
  • 2016– The former Prime Minister led the Pakistani delegation on 25-26 November, 2016 to the first ever Global Conference on Sustainable Transport at Ashgabat.
  • 2015– Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Turkmenistan on 12-13 December 2015 to attend the International Conference on Neutrality and for the ground breaking ceremony of (TAPI) Gas Pipeline Project.

From Turkmenistan
  • 2019– Turkmen Foreign Minister visited Pakistan on 12th March to hold 2nd session of BPC and signed 5 MoUs/Agreements.
  • 2017– The President of Turkmenistan H.E. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov visited Islamabad on 28 February to 1 March 2017 to attend the 13th ECO Summit.
  • 2016– President of Turkmenistan, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, paid an official visit to Pakistan on 16-17 March 2016.

Trade and Economic:

At the end of financial year closing in December 2017, Turkmenistan’s total GDP (PPP) was recorded as $103.7 billion with GDP Per Capita of $18,200. During the same period its Foreign Trade was $ 12.029 billion.Turkmenistan imports from Pakistan include rice (all sorts), fruits, vegetables, synthetic fabrics, animal and vegetable fats, Miscellaneous manufactured articles including handicrafts. Pakistan’s imports from Turkmenistan mostly comprise of raw cotton, crude minerals, waste cotton, petroleum products, chemical materials and products.    

Pakistan’s Trade with Turkmenistan – US $ Million
Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 2.24 23.18 25.42
2016-17 3.34 22.77 23.18
 
  1. Uzbekistan:
Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Uzbekistan havesteadily improved during the last decade with focus on infrastructure development and connectivity. Uzbekistan supported Pakistan’s full membership of SCO and both sides have also traditionally supported each other candidatures in the UN and other international organizations.

High-level visits:

There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.

From Pakistan
  • 2019- Prime Minister of Pakistan met with the President of Uzbekistan on the sidelines of the OBOR Forum in Beijing on 26-27th April 2019.
  • 2019- Both Pakistani and Uzbek Foreign Ministers met on the sidelines of Munich Security Conference in February 2019.
  • 2018- Former Foreign Minister of Pakistan visited Tashkent on 26-27 March 2018 to participate in International Conference on Afghanistan-Peace Process, Security Cooperation and Regional Connectivity.
  • 2017- The then National Security Advisor, Lt. Gen. Nasser Khan Janjua, attended the International Conference on Regional Security and Development, in Samarkand on 10-11 November 2017.
  • 2016- Former SAPM, Syed Tariq Fatemi, led Pakistan’s delegation to the 43rd Session of Council of Foreign Ministers (CFM) of the OIC held in Tashkent in October 2016.
  • 2016- Former President of Pakistan, Mr. Mamnoon Hussain visited Uzbekistan to participate in SCO Summit in June 2016. He also met with his Uzbek counterpart, late President Islam Karimov.

From Uzbekistan
  1. 2019- During last week of May 2019, the Uzbek Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Elyor Ganiev led a delegation to Islamabad to discuss possibility of a proposed railway link between Mazar-i-Sharif, Kabul and Peshawar.
  2. 2018- Uzbek Foreign Minister visited Islamabad on 1st November 2018 to hold delegation level talks with the Foreign Minister. He also called on the Prime Minister.
  3. 2018- Uzbek Foreign Minister Mr. Kamilov Abdulaziz Khafizovich visited Islamabad in February 2018, to personally extend an invitation to Foreign Minister of Pakistan for the “Tashkent Conference on Afghanistan”, held on 26-27 March 2018.
  4. 2017- Then Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan, Mr. Ulugbek Rozikulov, participated in 13th ECO Summit held in Islamabad on in March 2017.

Trade and Economic:

Pakistan’s exports to Uzbekistan are pharmaceuticals, services, medical equipment, chemical products and citrus fruits etc. Pakistan’s imports from Uzbekistan include raw hide, horticultural products, fertilizers etc. Lately, Uzbek business community has expressed their increased interest in Pakistani market and a delegation also participated in TEXPO-2019.  

Pakistan’s Trade with Uzbekistan – US $ Million
Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 65 35 100
2016-17 35
Pakistan-Estonia Relations

Brief

Pakistan recognized Estonia in 1992 soon after its independence. Relations between Pakistan and Estonia remained friendly ever since. However, there have been no high-level interactions between the two sides.

Political Relations

  1. The MoU on the establishment of Bilateral Political Consultations between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the two countries was signed on 8 December 2004. Under the MoU three rounds of Bilateral Political Consultations have been held in Pakistan and Estonia (2005 and 2011 in Tallinn and 2007 in Islamabad). The 4th round of consultations will be held in Islamabad on mutually agreed dates.

Economic Relations

  1. The total bilateral trade in 2018 was US$ 17.62 million. Pakistan’s exports stood at US$ 14.28 million and imports were US$ 3.348 million. Pakistan’s imports from Estonia include food products and beverages, mineral fuels, wood and wood products, articles of base metals, furniture and bedding and exports include food and food products, metals, salt and textile. The trade of the last three years is as follows:

(Million US $)
Trade 2016 2017 2018
Exports from Pakistan 13.72 11.56 14.28
Imports to Pakistan 3.86 4.42 3.348
Total trade 17.58 15.988 17.62
Source: Eurostat

Pakistani Community

  1. There are approximately 245 Pakistani citizens living in Estonia including 70 students. There is an organization of Pakistani community called “Pakistan-Estonia Association”. The main objective of the association is to provide a common platform to the Pakistani community living in Estonia, work for their welfare, facilitate new comers, promote social, cultural values and soft image of Pakistan.
Pakistan-Finland Bilateral Relations

Brief

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Finland were established in 1951. The Finnish Embassy in Islamabad was opened in 1989. However, the Embassy was closed by Finland in July 2012 on account of financial considerations. Pakistan has an Honorary Consulate in Helsinki.

Political Relations

  1. Pakistan’s relations with Finland are friendly with steady growth in content and substance. The former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf visited Finland in July 2004. There were, however, some meetings between the leadership on the sidelines of the international events. The former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Raja Pervez Ashraf, and Finnish Prime Minister, Jyrki Katainen met on the sidelines of the 9th ASEM Summit in Vientiane, Laos in November 2012.
 
  1. An eight-member delegation of the Finnish Foreign Relations committee visited Islamabad in January 2007. The former Special Assistant to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs, Syed Tariq Fatemi met with the Finnish Prime Minister on the sidelines of the ASEM Summit in Milan in October 2014. The Finnish Prime Minister expressed his desire to visit Pakistan which was welcomed by the the SAPM. A 21-member delegation of the National Defence University visited Finland from 26 April to 01 May 2015.

Bilateral Political Consultation

  1. Both countries are regularly holding Bilateral Political Consultations. The first round of Bilateral Political Consultations was held at Helsinki on 11 April 2014. In 2016, the Second Round of bilateral political consultations was held in Islamabad on 17 May 2016.

  2. The fourth Round of Pakistan-Finland Bilateral Political Consultations between Pakistan and Finland was held in Islamabad on 26 February 2019. Additional Secretary (Europe) Zaheer A. Janjua led the Pakistani delegation while Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs Anne Marjaana Sipilainen headed the Finnish side. The next round will be held in Helsinki on mutually agreed dates.
 
Trade and Economic Cooperation

  1. The total bilateral trade in 2018 was US $ 107.49. Pakistan’s exports to Finland were recorded at US $ 25.04 million and Pakistan’s imports from Finland were US $ 82.45 million.

  2. Pakistan’s imports are mainly electrical and optical equipment, machinery, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; industrial goods, chemicals, machinery, agricultural products, minerals (non-ferrous metals), telecommunication apparatus. Pakistan’s major exports to Finland are bed-wear, ready-made garments, sports goods, knitwear (hosiery), cotton fabrics, apparel & clothing of leather, made-up articles of textiles (silk/synthetic), sports goods, carpets & floor covering, rice and mangoes.
 
  1. There are 6-7 notable Finnish companies including Nokia, SSM, Wärtsilä, Stora-Enso and Vaisala operating in Pakistan. A Finnish company Stora Enso has established a joint venture called Bulleh Shah Packaging Limited with Packages Pakistan in 2012. The joint venture employs around 950 persons and sales are forecast to be around Euros 100 million.
 
  1. The Finland-Pakistan Business Council was reactivated in 2014 and has already held various trade promotion events besides planning various events in the future. Finpro has hired two local consultants to assist the Finnish companies intending to do business in Pakistan.
 
Development and Humanitarian Assistance  

  1. Finland’s Official Development Assistance and Humanitarian Aid (ODA) to Pakistan in 2010–2014 amounted to over 24 million Euros. Finland has considerably increased its support to Pakistan during recent years. Finland has pledged about EUR 11 million to the Asian Development Fund in 2017–2020. It is the sixth largest development assistance provider after UK, USA, EU, Germany and Australia.
 
  1. The Multi Donor Trust Fund (MDTF), founded in 2010 and managed by the World Bank, is the most important development co-operation programme supported by Finland in Pakistan. The Trust Fund operates at the border region of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Fund´s programs concentrate on three main sectors; reconstruction of the destroyed or damaged infrastructure, improvement of services of local administration and support to the economy, mainly small and midsized companies. Gender equality is an important aspect and the local women have been encouraged to take part in the planning and implementation phases of different projects.
 
  1. The Finnish Meteorological Institute have delivered ten automatic weather stations to Pakistan in 2011 and a development plan to improve the capabilities of the Pakistan national weather service is being drafted. The personnel from the Pakistan national weather service are trained for use and maintenance of the stations. The Finnish Government signed a contract of Euro 200,000 with an NGO named Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in November 2014 to support a reproductive health project in Karachi.
 
Educational/ Cultural cooperation

  1. A collaboration agreement was signed between the Aalto University, Helsinki and the Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design Lahore in 2011. The collaboration paves the way for Pakistani students to benefit from the Finnish expertise in the field of fashion. A delegation of NUST headed by its Rector visited Finland in April 2014 for exploring collaboration with the Finnish educational institutions during which an MoU was signed between NUST and Aalto University.

  2. The Finnish Museum Association has an ongoing collaboration program with the Pakistani Museum Association. A number of visits have been exchanged between them so far. An MoU was signed between the Finnish Museum Association and COMSATS in February 2015 to support the program.
 
Pakistani Community

  1. There is a small Pakistani community in Finland, estimated at around 2600 persons including students. These people are engaged in various occupations. Pakistan has a dual nationality agreement with Finland since September 2015.
Pakistan – France Relations

Brief

France is an important partner of Pakistan in Europe. The two countries share cordial and multifaceted relations. Cooperation between Pakistan and France extends from trade and economic domain to counter-terrorism, culture, education, defence and close liaison at the UN and the EU.

Political Relations

  1. Four institutional mechanisms have been established between Pakistan and France to promote cooperation in political, trade, security and defence fields. These include: (i) Bilateral Political Consultations; (ii) Joint Economic Commission; (iii) Joint Security Commission; and (iv) Joint Staff Talks. So far, thirteen rounds of Bilateral Political Consultations at Foreign Secretary level, six rounds of the Joint Security Dialogue and eleven rounds of Joint Staff Talks have been held. The 13th round of Annual Bilateral Consultations was held in Islamabad on 10 July 2018.
 
Parliamentary Cooperation  

  1. Pakistan-France Parliamentary Friendship Groups exist in the French Senate and National Assembly. Similar groups have also been formed in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan. The Friendship Groups in the French Parliament and Senate visited Pakistan in December 2017 and January 2018. President of Pakistan-France Friendship Group Senator Pascal Allizard visited Pakistan from 28-30 October 2018 to attend APA meeting in Gwadar at the invitation of Chairman Senate. Another delegation of France Senators visited Pakistan from 24-27 April 2019.
 
Economic Cooperation  

  1. There has been a steady increase in Pakistan-France bilateral trade over the years, with balance of trade consistently remaining in Pakistan’s favor. Bilateral trade between Pakistan and France stood at US $ 1.5 billion in the year 2018.
                                                                                                         
  1. Around 46 French companies including Total, Alcatel, Sanofi Aventis, Vinci, Carrefour, Engie, L’Oréal, Schneider and Suez are active in Pakistan. French supermarket giant Carrefour is operating outlets in Lahore, Karachi and Islamabad. L’Oreal has established a distribution/marketing office in Karachi. French automaker Renault announced setting up a car manufacturing facility in Faisalabad. Alstom, French energy company (acquired by General electric) is providing turbines for energy projects in Pakistan (Sahiwal) and is aiding in upgradation of Mangla Dam. A Pakistani company Martin Dow purchased two pharmaceutical plants in France.
 
  1. A delegation of French companies under the auspices of MEDEF (Association of French Entrepreneurs) visited Pakistan from 8-11 April The delegation earlier visited Pakistan in 2017, after which Credit Agricole, one of the largest banks in France, upgraded ‘Risk Model’ for Pakistan by two notches. A major financing loan for LNG Floating Terminal in Karachi was approved in principle. Its subsidiary Credit Agricole Grameen also announced plans to undertake micro-financing projects for SMEs in partnership with Pakistani entities. Suez, a world leader in water and waste management, negotiated an agreement with Sindh government for improving water supply in Karachi.
 
  1. Pakistan participates in several international trade exhibitions held every year in Paris. In 2016, several Pakistani companies participated in Tex World (textile trade fair); Premier Vision (leather and textile trade fair); SPACE (agriculture trade fair); SIAL (food trade fair); and Expo Protection Exhibition (safety instruments trade fair). A group of French businessmen visited Pakistan in April 2016 for TEXPO Karachi. In 2017, Pakistan participated in two Tex World fairs and French companies attended Expo 2017 in Karachi.
 
Development Cooperation  

  1. French Development Agency (AFD) has allocated more than Euros 900 million soft loans to Pakistan since 2007. In 2017-2018 AFD approved three new loans for a total of Euros 290 million for Bus Rapid Transit of Peshawar, clean drinking water supply in Faisalabad and solar energy projects in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
 
  1. For 2019-2020, AFD plans to commit additional Euro 300 million to finance BRT Karachi with ADB and AIIB, rehabilitation of Lahore Fort, treatment of waste management in Lahore and access to basic services in Gilgit-Baltistan.
 
Defence and Security Cooperation  

  1. Pakistan has a long tradition of defence relations with France. The induction of French Mirage fighter jets into Pakistan Air Force in 1960s laid the foundations of this relationship. Later, the acquisition of French submarines and maritime aircraft in 1970s and 1990s further reinforced ties. France also contributed extensively in training of Pakistan Air Force and Navy.

  2. Defense relations between Pakistan and France have been institutionalized through Joint Security Commission and Staff Talks. A draft MoU on cooperation between National Defence University, Islamabad and its French counterpart IHDEN was signed in July 2019.
 
Education, Culture and Research  

  1. Since 2010, Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) has an ongoing scholarship program to enable Pakistani students to pursue higher studies in France. Presently, there are more than 600 Pakistani scholars pursuing Ph.D. and Masters programmes in various French institutions under this program.
 
  1. HEC and Campus France signed an MoU to promote cooperation between Pakistani and French Universities in 2016. A partnership agreement was signed between UNESCO and the International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS) as its category II partner on 21 November 2016. A Memorandum of Understanding between Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) and Meteo France (MF) for cooperation in the field of meteorology was signed at Paris in July 2017.

  2. “Pakistan Week,” a joint initiative of Higher Education of Pakistan (HEC) and its French counterpart Campus France, was launched in Paris on 20 June 2018. This was the third event of its kind, which aimed at deepening cooperation in higher education between Pakistan and France.
 
Pakistani Community  

  1. There are approximately one hundred thousand Pakistanis living in France. A significant number of our community is engaged in businesses ranging from restaurants, construction, small businesses and as low-skilled labor. Pakistani Diaspora in France enjoys positive image and contributes meaningfully to the French society, in comparison with other migrant communities, it does not have any significant political influence in France.
Pakistan Germany Relations
 
Brief  

Pakistan Germany bilateral relations are governed by the Strategic Dialogue – signed and launched by the Foreign Ministers of the two countries in September 2012 in Berlin. Four rounds of Dialogue have been held so far. The fourth round of the Strategic Dialogue was held in Islamabad on 31 October 2018. The entire spectrum of bilateral relations came under review, including economic cooperation, defence, trade, investment, culture, education, security and strategic stability. The two sides also reviewed the regional situation. A draft Road Map for enhancing the bilateral relations was presented to the German side.

Political Relations

  1. The Foreign Minister visited Munich to attend Munich Security Conference from 14-15 Feburary 2019. The Foreign Minister also held a meeting with the German Foreign Minister on the sidelines of the event.

  2. German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas visited Islamabad on 12 March 2019. During the visit, the German Foreign Minister met the Prime Minister, Chief of Army Staff and held tete-a-tete followed by delegation level talks with the Foreign Minister.

Economic Cooperation

  1. Pakistan and Germany trade volume was US$ 5 million in 2018. Germany is Pakistan’s 6th most important export destination. Pakistan’s principal exports to Germany are textiles, leather goods, medical instruments, Basmati rice, carpets and jewellery. German main exports to Pakistan are: electrical power machinery, packed medicaments & medicine, textile machinery, cars, medical instruments, synthetic colours and etc.

  2. Germany is the 7th largest FDI investor in Pakistan with a total investment of US $ 380.5 million approximately, as 35 German multinationals are engaged in Pakistan, like Merck, Hoechts, Bayer, BASF, Siemens, Linde, Metro and others. In Pakistan, 55 percent of the German investment is in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The second largest sector is electronics industry, followed by the transport sector and textiles machinery.
 
  1. The German automobile maker Volkswagen announced to set up an assembly plant in Karachi. The project envisages assembly of 28,000 units of Amarok and Transporter T-6 light commercial vehicles in Karachi. In the second phase of the Project, Volkswagen Caddy will also be produced. At its full capacity, the project is likely to generate Euro 400-450 million in sales and exports, and Euro 200 million in duties and taxes annually.
 
German Development Assistance  

  1. Germany is Pakistan’s development partner. The cooperation has been continuing since the founding of German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) in 1961. The volume of development assistance and priority areas are identified through biannual review meetings between BMZ and Economic Affairs Division, held alternately in Berlin and Islamabad. The focus of development cooperation has largely been on KP, FATA and Punjab, though exceptions have been made. Germany is one of the few donors working in KP and FATA. The priority areas for development assistance are identified in close consultations with EAD, and based on the feedback received from the implementing agency, GIZ, German political foundations, German INGOs and civil society organizations. For the last five years, the focus has been on i) good governance; ii) renewable energy and energy efficiency; iii) basic education/vocational training; and iv) health.
 
  1. A new country strategy for Pakistan for the period 2016-2020 was finalized by BMZ in August 2016, in consultation with EAD. It endorses continued German engagement with Pakistan in the areas of (i) good governance, (ii) energy and (iii) sustainable economic development.
 
Defence Cooperation  

  1. Pakistan and German defence collaboration started in 1960s. A major step in this regard was induction of German origin small arms for Pakistan Armed Forces in 1960s. In March 2012, Pakistan and Germany signed a MoU on Defence Cooperation signed by Defence Ministers.
 
  1. Military-to-Military Cooperation between Germany and Pakistan is purely the domain of the Ministry of Defence in the German context. Pakistan and German Armed Forces have come a long way in increasing contacts in areas such as, courses, visits, seminars and talks at various levels. These contacts can be further divided into two categories, Military Cooperation Programs (MCP) and Military Training Assistance Program (MTAP).
   
Cooperation in Education  

  1. Germany is an attractive destination for Pakistani students. Around 5000 students are pursuing studies at various German institutions; including 382 Pakistani students who have completed their degrees in Master’s and Ph.D. due to scholarship programmes being offered by German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) with HEC.
 
  1. The two countries are also cooperating in the area of vocational and technical education and training (TVET) through establishment of centres of excellence and capacity building of trainers in TVET.
 
Pakistani Community  

  1. Over 100,000 Pakistanis live in Germany. Principal cities where majority of Pakistani community members reside are: Frankfurt, Bonn, Köln, Stuttgart, Hamburg, Berlin, Hanover and Düsseldorf.
 
  1. The majority is engaged in small businesses. A new generation of foreign qualified Pakistanis has started joining the German workforce in small numbers. Over 5000 Pakistani students are pursuing their studies in different educational institutions of Germany.
Pakistan-Hungary Relations
Brief

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Hungary were established in 1965.  Heads of Government/State level visits have never taken place. Visits at the ministerial level are infrequent. Mr. Levente Magyar, Hungarian Minister of State for Economic Diplomacy, visited Pakistan from 26-27 April 2016, the first such visit in 10 years.

Political Relations

  1. The former Adviser to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs Mr. Sartaj Aziz met Mr. Peter Szijjarto Hungarian Foreign Minister on the sidelines of the “One Belt One Road” Conference on 14-15 May 2017 in Beijing.
 
Bilateral Political Consultations  

  1. The two sides regularly consult each other under the framework of Bilateral Political Consultations. Since the inaugural session in Budapest in March 2007, a total of five (05) sessions have been held. The fifth session was held in Islamabad in 2017. During the BPC, the two sides reviewed the entire spectrum of bilateral relations and chart the way for future cooperation.

Trade and Economic Relations  

  1. The total volume of trade in 2018 was US $ 45.15 million, with Pakistan’s exports of US $ 18.95 million and imports of US $ 26.19 million.
 
  1. The highlight of Pakistan-Hungary economic relations is Magyar Oil Limited (MOL) Hungary’s US$ 305 million investment in Pakistan’s oil and gas sector since 1999. MOL is the largest producer of LPG, second largest producer of oil, and one of the largest producers of gas in Pakistan. MOL’s Pakistan operations are its most lucrative international operations.
 
Science and Technology, Culture and Education  

  1. Under the Higher Education and Scientific Exchange Programme concluded on 7 December 2015 and amended on 21 February 2017, Hungary provides 200 graduates, postgraduate and doctoral scholarships to Pakistani students each year for three years.
 
  1. Hungary has offered to restore the Princess Bamba Paintings at the Lahore Fort by renowned Hungarian artist August Schoefft. The paintings depict historic culture of Sikh Court of 19th The expenditure incurred on the restoration of the paintings will be covered by the Hungarian side.

Pakistani Community

  1. There is a small Pakistani community in Hungary, numbering about 80-100 families. Most of them are professionals working in UN agencies, international banks, IT Sector, MOL, etc. A fair number of Pakistani students are studying in Hungarian Universities, especially on scholarships offered by the Hungarian government.
Brief on Iceland

Pakistan and Iceland have warm and friendly relations. The last visit to Pakistan by the officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iceland took place in April 1996, following a request from the Honorary Consul of Iceland in Pakistan for exploring the possibility of cooperation in the Fishing Industry. The delegation also included the representatives of the Trade Council – the Fisheries Development Fund and Fisheries Technology Forum.

Political Relations  

  1. The former President Asif Zardari met the President of Iceland in January 2011 on the sidelines of World Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi.
 
  1. The former Foreign Minister Hina Rabbani Khar and the Minister for Foreign Affairs and External Trade of Iceland, Mr. Össur Skarphéðinsson, met on the sidelines of the 66th session of the UN General Assembly in New York in September 2011. Both the Ministers exchanged views on various facets of bilateral relations.
 
  1. Iceland has Honorary Consulates in Islamabad and Karachi. However, in the absence of any sizable Pakistani community in Iceland and dearth of contacts at different levels, the interaction between the two countries is not conspicuous. In the area of education a few students from Pakistan received geothermal training at United Nations University in Reykjavik in 90s.
 
Trade and Economic Cooperation  

  1. Volume of trade with Iceland has been negligible due to lack of transport and communication links. A small amount of US $ 1.59 million was recorded in bilateral trade in 2018 with the balance of trade in favour of Pakistan.
 
  1. Iceland has a very modern and advanced fishing industry, which is the backbone of their economy. Pakistan, being a country with a long coastline and many rivers, can consider tapping the area of cooperation to impart fishing expertise to our professionals, which Iceland has developed.
PAKISTAN-IRAN RELATIONS
 
Overview of Relations

Pakistan-Iran bilateral relations are rooted in historical linkages and based on religious, linguistic, cultural linkages and spiritual affiliation. Relations between Pakistan and Iran have by and large remained positive. Iran was the first country to recognize Pakistan after independence. After the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran, Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize the new dispensation. The two countries have supported each other at critical junctures in their history.

Bilateral Political Relations

  1. Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Iran are undergoing a transformative phase. There is a renewed energy and growing positivity and desire to work together between the two countries. The growing warmth in our relations and desire to re-engage can be measured from the fact that Iranian Foreign Minister Dr. Javad Zarif was the first foreign dignitary to visit on 31 August 2018 after formation of new government in Pakistan. The Foreign Minister once again visited on 31 October 2018 and in May 2019. Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi also visited Iran on 24 December 2018.

  2. The Prime Minister Imran Khan made his first official visit to Iran at the invitation of Iranian President Dr. Hassan Rouhani on 21-22 April 2019. The timely and fruitful visit contributed to enhancing mutual understanding on a range of issues in political, economic and security areas. The visit helped in setting a clear policy direction for durable, mutually-beneficial relations with Iran. The key outcomes of the visit include; Signing of Declaration for Cooperation in Healthcare Sector; initiation of the process for release of a number of Pakistani prisoners; holding meetings of various bilateral mechanisms; opening of new crossing points; and call for peaceful solution of Jammu &Kashmir dispute.

  1. Iran has remained strong supporter of the Kashmir cause. It has openly voiced support for the innocent Kashmiris under brutal siege of Indian forces. The Iranian high leadership has also repeatedly given statements in support of people of Kashmir and condemned unjust Indian atrocities. Similarly, Pakistan’s support on Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and commitment towards Iran despite US’ unilateral sanctions has been greatly appreciated in Iran.

  1. Despite the excellent bilateral relations, the current trade volume between the two countries is below its full potential. Currently, the volume of trade is US $ 392.08 million with $22.86 million Pakistani exports comprising mainly of rice, meat, paper and paper board, chemicals, textiles, fruit & vegetables; major imports from Iran comprise mainly of iron ore, hide & skins, and chemical products (Pakistani imports US$ 369.23 million).

  1. Iran and Pakistan are working together at expert level to improve road and rail connectivity. This includes upgradation of 700 kilometer Quetta-Taftan highway, improvement of facilities at border crossing points, opening up of new border crossing points (Gabd-Reemdan and Mand-Pishin) and improvement of facilities available to Zaireen during their visits to Iran, Iraq and other countries.

  1. Pakistan-Iran border has been named “Border of Peace, Friendship and Love” by the leadership of both countries. There are many border management mechanisms operational between the two countries.

  2. There is a significant number of Pakistani diaspora living in Iran. Moreover, a large number of Zaireen (0.3 million) visit holy places and shrines in Iran, Iraq and Syria via Quetta Taftan border. There is also a work going on to further strengthen the bilateral relations with Iran through promotion of religious tourism by enhancing tourism to historic religious sites in Pakistan including facilitation to Zaireen.
BRIEF on Republic Of Kosovo  

Pakistan recognized Kosovo as a sovereign and independent state on 12 December 2012. Pakistan was the 98th State to accord recognition to Kosovo as an independent state.  

  1. Pakistan’s decision to recognize Kosovo is based on the principle of self-determination made in accordance with the aspirations of the people of Kosovo. Pakistan’s Ambassador in Turkey is accredited to Kosovo. Similarly, Kosovo’s Ambassador in Ankara is concurrently accredited to Islamabad.
 
  1. In 2009, Pakistan supported membership of Kosovo to International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. Recently, Kosovo has sought Pakistan’s support for its application for membership to the INTERPOL. Pakistan voted in favour of Kosovo’s membership application during the INTERPOL General Assembly meeting held on 20 November 2018. However, Kosovo failed to obtained the required two-thirds votes of the INTERPOL General Assembly.
 
  1. Pakistan recently also expressed support for Kosovo’s membership of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institution (INTOSAI). No MoUs/Agreements have been signed between the two countries so far. However, both sides are currently working on a number of drafts MoUs.
 
Political Relations  

  1. Exchange of leadership level visits between the two countries has not taken place so far. However, Ministerial level visits have taken place. Pakistan’s Former Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Malik Amad Khan visited Kosovo as a Special Envoy of the President of Pakistan on 18 January, 2013 to formally convey Pakistan’s decision to recognize Kosovo.
 
  1. The Foreign Minister of Kosovo, H.E. Enver Hoxhaj undertook a visit to Pakistan on 10-11 March 2014. During this visit, he called on the President and the Adviser on National Security and Foreign Affairs. This was the first high-level visit between the two countries after Pakistan recognized Kosovo in December 2012.
 
  1. During the talks, both sides expressed their desire to build a long-term and broad-based relationship. Special emphasis was also laid on developing bilateral economic and commercial relations and increasing people-to-people contact.
 
  1. On 29 August, 2014, President Mamnoon Hussain held a bilateral meeting with his Kosovar counterpart, Ms. Atifete Jahjaga during his visit to Ankara for the oath-taking ceremony of the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. The Kosovo President expressed gratitude to Pakistan for recognizing Kosovo as an independent country and sought Pakistan’s support for obtaining the membership of the UN and OIC, for which Kosovo qualifies with a 90% Muslim population.
 
  1. The first Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kosovo H.E. Mr. Hashim Thaci was scheduled to visit Pakistan from 9-12 June 2015. However, the visit was postponed on request by the Kosovar side due to developments, which required his presence in the country. In the recent months, Kosovo’s leadership has expressed desire to visit Pakistan and to increase leadership level contacts.
 
Progress with regard to establishment of institutional linkages  

  1. The inaugural session of Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC) between Pakistan and Kosovo was held on 6-7 April 2017 at Pristina which was an important stepping-stone.
 
  1. The deliberations covered a wide spectrum of issues pertaining to Kosovo-Pakistan bilateral relations including, inter alia, the latest political and economic developments in the respective regions; steps required for the establishment of legal and institutional frameworks between the two sides; increasing the frequency of high-level contacts, including between the respective Parliaments; strengthening bilateral economic and trade relations; as well as possible cooperation in the multilateral organizations.
Pakistan and Latin America

With resident Missions in four countries of Latin America, i.e., Mexico, Argentina, Brazil and Cuba, Pakistan’s relations with the region have traditionally been based on commonality of objectives and shared interests on several regional and international issues as well as close cooperation in the international fora, especially the United Nations

Brazil:

  1. Pakistan and Brazil established diplomatic relations in 1949. Both countries have resident Missions in each other’s countries. The two countries enjoy cordial and friendly relations with a shared perception on global issues and also cooperate at international forums, inter alia, about supporting each other’s candidacies.
 
  1. Economically, Brazil is the powerhouse of Latin America. Bilateral trade volume between Pakistan and Brazil was over US $ 531 million in 2018. Pakistan’s major exports to Brazil include cotton fabrics, inflatable balls, bed linen, medical and surgical instruments, leather goods, copper, rubber tyres, motorcycle accessories, polyester yarn etc while main items of Brazilian exports to Pakistan include soya bean oil, raw cotton, iron waste and machinery etc.
 
  1. There are separate Pakistan-Brazil Friendship Groups in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan.
 
  1. Around 400 Pakistanis are residing in Brazil. While 200 live in the five Countries of accreditation i.e. Bolivia-40, Colombia-80, Guyana 25, Suriname 25 and Venezuela 40.

Mexico:

  1. Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Mexico were established in 1955. Pakistan has its embassy in Mexico while the embassy of Mexico based in Tehran is accredited to Pakistan. The vigor of relationship between Pakistan and Mexico is reflected by the fact that in September 2015, the Mexican Senate held a “Week of Pakistan” to celebrate 60 years of diplomatic relations between both nations.
 
  1. The volume of bilateral trade between the two countries has increased from US$169 million in 2013 to US$249 in 2018. Major exports of Pakistan to Mexico include cotton, textiles, leather goods, spices, toys, dental and sports goods etc. The import products from Mexico include machinery, articles of iron or steel, wood pulp, fibrous cellulosic material, roots and tubers, plastic articles and chemicals etc.
 
  1. A Parliamentary Friendship Group between Pakistan and Mexico was formally launched in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) in 2010. Pakistan also has separate Pak-Mexico Friendships Group in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan.
 
  1. Both countries have signed an agreement of visa abolition for diplomatic and official passport holders. There are 300 Pakistani families in Mexico.
 
Argentina  

  1. Pakistan and Argentina established diplomatic relations in 1951. Both countries have resident Missions in each other’s capitals. The two countries enjoy friendly and cordial relations characterized by cooperation at international fora, shared perceptions and understanding on most major global and regional issues.
 
  1. During 2018, Pakistan’s exports to Argentina remained US$ 45 million while Argentina’s exports to Pakistan valued at US$ 92 million. Pakistan traditionally exports textile products, surgical instruments, sports goods and leather products to Argentina while soybean oil/seed has been a major export by Argentina to Pakistan in addition to compressed natural gas equipment, pharmaceuticals and raw cotton.
 
  1. Pakistan-Argentina Friendship Groups in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan have also been constituted.
 
  1. Pakistani Community in Argentina consists of 10-15 families.

Cuba:

  1. Pakistan and Cuba established diplomatic relations in 1955. Pakistan has its embassy in Havana. Likewise, Cuba has a resident Mission in Islamabad. The relationship between two countries is marked with active dialogue between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, support to candidatures in multilateral organizations and cooperation in the social and cultural fields. Pakistan and Cuba have historically been coordinating closely at the UN, NAM and G-77.
 
  1. Pakistan appreciates Cuba’s generous and unprecedented relief assistance during and after the October 2005 earthquake. As a token of goodwill towards the people of Cuba, Pakistan gifted 15,000 Metric Tons of rice to the people of Cuba. Pakistan conferred its highest civil award, Nishan-i-Pakistan on late Dr. Fidel Castro Ruz on 23rd March, 2018 in recognition of his outstanding contribution in strengthening fraternal relations between Pakistan and Cuba.
 
  1. There are separate Pakistan-Cuba Friendship Groups in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan. Agreement on visa abolition for diplomatic and official passport holders of Pakistan and Cuba is in its final stages.
Pakistan-Latvia Relations

Brief

Pakistan recognized Latvia on 10 September 1991 and established diplomatic relations on 26 April 1996. The two countries have since maintained friendly and cooperative relations.

  1. Five rounds of Bilateral Political Consultations have been held between the two countries. The 4th round was held in Islamabad in December 2016 and the 5th in Riga in May 2019.

  2. The Foreign Minister of Latvia paid a visit to Islamabad in December 2015 to attend the 5th Ministerial Conference of Heart of Asia-Istanbul process.

  3. Bilateral trade between the two countries in 2017 was US$ 23.44 million with exports from Pakistan amounting to US$5.54 million.

  4. As per the recent figures there are 168 Pakistani nationals residing in Latvia including 75 students.
Pakistan – Lithuania Relations

Brief

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Lithuania were established on 31 May 1994. Pakistan recognized Lithuania on 08 September 1991. Pakistan’s Mission in Minsk is concurrently accredited to Lithuania, while Lithuanian Ambassador in Ankara is concurrently accredited to Pakistan. Lithuania has an Honorary Consulate General in Islamabad since early 1990s. Pakistan appointed a Lithuanian businessman Mr. Igoris Kupastas as Pakistan’s honorary consul general in Lithuania, the Honourary Consulate was inaugurated in March 2016.

Political Relations

  1. There have been no high level visits between the two countries. The last highest level interaction was seven years ago on the sidelines of the Davos Summit on 30 January 2009, when Prime Minister Syed Yusaf Raza Gillani met the former President of Lithuania, Mr. Valdas Adamkus. The only ministerial level visit from Lithuania, has been the visit of Lithuania’s Minister for Economy to Pakistan on 26-28 September 1999, while from our side, Former Minister for Human Rights, Mr. Kamran Micheal attended the first ASEM Conference ‘Women’s Economic Empowerment: Creating Equal Opportunities in the World of Work’ in Vilnius on 25-26 May 2017.

  2. A four member Pakistan Senate delegation led by Senator Dr. Mehar Taj Roghani, participated in the “Women Political Leaders (WPL) Summit 2018”, held in Vilnius on June 6-8, 2018.

Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. The 6th round of Bilateral Political Consultations was held in Islamabad on 23 October 2018. The Pakistan side was led by Ambassador Zaheer A. Janjua, Additional Secretary (Europe), while Ambassador Eduardas Borisovas, Director for Latin America, Africa, Asia and Pacific Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, headed the Lithuanian side. Both sides reviewed the progress made on the decisions made during the 5th round of Bilateral Consultations, and agreed to enhance and strengthen their relations and bilateral cooperation in various areas.

Bilateral Trade

  1. Bilateral trade between Pakistan and Lithuania is not substantive, however the balance of trade has remained in Pakistan’s favour. In 2018 the total bilateral trade stood at US $ 47.019 million with Pakistan’s exports at US $ 41.496 million and imports at US $ 5.523million.

  2. Pakistan’s main exports to Lithuania are rice, cotton fabrics, textile, medical and pharmaceutical products, and synthetic fabrics. Our imports include fertilizer, machinery and old clothing.

Cooperation in Education

  1. In a follow-up of the 5th Session of Bilateral Political Consultations, the Ministry of Federal Education & Professional Training, as well as the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has shown willingness of the following Universities of Pakistan to collaborate with Lithuanian Universities:
  • National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore.
  • University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  • NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi
  • National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
  • Government College Women University, Faisalabad

  1. The details have been forwarded to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania, with a request to share the information with the concerned educational institutions in Lithuania, for the possibility of signing MOUs between the institutions of the two countries.

Pakistani Community

  1. There are around 150 Pakistanis living in Lithuania. This includes 15-20 Pakistani students who are studying at the Kaunas University of Medicine in the city of Kaunas.
Pakistan’s Relations with Republic of North Macedonia

Brief

Pakistan was one of the first Asian and Islamic countries to recognize Republic of North Macedonia and establish diplomatic relations with it. Pakistan also supported North Macedonia’s membership to the UN in 1993. Pakistan attaches great importance to strengthening bilateral ties with North Macedonia and is desirous of expanding mutually beneficial cooperation in diverse fields. The people of Pakistan have great goodwill for Macedonia.  

  1. Pakistan has been offering Advanced and Senior level training programs for Macedonian diplomats at the Foreign Service Academy, Islamabad. Moreover, a number of Macedonian government officials have received training at public policy institutes in Pakistan. A wrestling team from Pakistan also participated in 31st World Military Wrestling Championship in Macedonia in September 2016.
 
  1. In order to strengthen the legal and institutional frameworks to expand bilateral cooperation in various sectors, MoUs/Agreements between the two Foreign Ministries, as well as trade, investment, and taxation treaties are under negotiations between the two countries.
 
  1. Further areas of cooperation, under active consideration, include promotion of Parliamentary exchanges and establishment of Parliamentary Friendship Groups.
Pakistan-Moldova Relations

Brief

Pakistan and Moldova established diplomatic relations in 1994. Pakistan and Moldova continue with diplomatic interactions at regular intervals. The resident Ambassador of Pakistan in Romania, with concurrent accreditation to the Republic of Moldova, regularly visits Chisinau. Pakistan and the Republic of Moldova have extended support to each other at various International Fora.  

Economic Relations

  1. Pakistan-Moldova bilateral trade currently stands at US$ 4.579 million (January-November, 2018). In 2018, Pakistan’s exports to Moldova witnessed 68.44% increase as compared to 2017. A brief glimpse of the bilateral trade statistics during 2013-2018 is as under:
 
Year Total   (US$ Million) Pakistan Exports to Moldova (US$ Million) Pakistan’s Imports from Moldova (US$ Million) Trade Balance (US$ Million)
2013 4.65 2.7 1.95 +0.75
2014 10.87 2.9 7.97 5.07
2015 3.83 3.2 0.63 +2.57
2016 3.01 2.13 0.88 +1.25
2017 3.605 2.81 0.795 +2.015
2018 4.579 4.179 0.40 +3.779
 
  1. Pakistan’s major exports to Moldova include textiles, pharmaceutical products, cereal, toys, games and sports articles, artificial fibers etc. Pakistan’s major imports from Moldova include edible vegetables, some roots and tubers as well as cereals.
 
Pakistan Diaspora  

  1. The Pakistan community in Moldova comprises of around 10-15 Pakistanis individuals.

PAKISTAN-MONTENEGRO RELATIONS

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Montenegro were established in 2006. Since then Pakistan has been maintaining cordial and friendly relations with Montenegro. Pakistan has a deep desire to further strengthen its relations with this country and is accordingly considering conclusion of various bilateral agreements with Montenegro in diverse fields. A senior level delegation from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan visited Montenegro for political consultations in 2013 and discussed cooperation in mutual training; bilateral trade and consular matters. The delegation also met with Deputy Minister for Economy and Foreign Policy Advisor to the Prime Minister. Pakistan’s exports to Montenegro stood at € 1.6 million and € 1.2 million in 2017 and 2018 respectively.
Pakistan – Norway Relations

Brief

  Pakistan and Norway enjoy cordial and friendly relations. Norway is one of Pakistan’s major development partners.  In Pakistan, their development cooperation focuses in the fields of poverty reduction, education, social development, environment and gender equality.  

Political Relations

  1. The Prime Minister Imran Khan and Prime Minister Erna Solbergmet on the sidelines of the 74th session of UNGA in New York on 26 September 2019.
 
  1. The Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi met the Norwegian Foreign Minister, Ine Eriksen Soreide, on the sidelines of Sir Bani Yas Forum in Abu Dhabi on 18 November 2018. The two Foreign Ministers stressed the need to further promote bilateral relations in all areas of mutual interest, including political, economic, trade and investment, education, culture and parliamentary exchanges. Foreign Minister Qureshi invited Norwegian companies to invest in Pakistan in renewable energy, water and waste management, fisheries, and ports and shipping, and emulate the successful business model of Telenor in the country.
 
Annual Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. Pakistan and Norway have a mechanism of Annual Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC) between the Foreign Ministries at the level of Additional Secretary. These consultations take place regularly and nine rounds have been held so far. The 10th round of talks was held in Islamabad on 04 April 2019 and the next round is expected in Oslo.
 
Economic and Trade Relations  

  1. The bilateral trade between Pakistan and Norway was US$ 142.02 million in 2018. Pakistan’s exports to Norway were US$ 98.44 million and imports from Norway were worth US$ 43.58 million with a balance of trade worth US$ 54.86 million in Pakistan’s favour.
 
  1. Norway views Pakistan as an attractive investment destination apart from a trade partner. There are around 10 Norwegian companies with businesses in Pakistan. Telenor is the largest Norwegian firm with investments over US$ 3.5 billion and creating 2,400 direct and 25,000 indirect jobs in Pakistan.
 
European Free Trade Association (EFTA)  

  1. Norway is a member of European Free Trade Association (EFTA) along with Switzerland, Iceland and Liechtenstein. Pakistan and EFTA states signed a Joint Declaration on Cooperation (JDC) on 12 November 2012 to promote economic cooperation. The EFTA Ministerial Meeting held in Iceland on 25 June 2018, the EFTA Ministers supported the continuation of discussions with Pakistan with a view to exploring the possibility of future trade negotiations. Accordingly, EFTA proposed engaging in a scoping exercise, which would become a basis for decisions on the next steps toward FTA. The Pakistan side, represented by Ministry of Commerce, accepted the offer to engage in a scoping exercise with EFTA. Later, in November 2018 a draft scoping paper was proposed by EFTA, stating that the next meeting between Pakistan and EFTA states could be held after written comments from Pakistan on the draft paper were received. The draft is under consideration of the Ministry of Commerce.

Cooperation in Education  

  1. Currently, there are around 300 Pakistani students enrolled in Norwegian universities in Masters and PhD programmes, particularly in the Sciences, Engineering and Medical Sciences departments.

Pakistan Community  

  1. Presently, there are around 50,000 Pakistani residing in Norway, making Pakistanis the single largest resident immigrant community in Norway. Pakistanis are engaged almost in every field, including police service, airlines, banks, teaching, medical, engineering, journalism, media and politics etc. Presently, three Pakistanis are elected members of the Norwegian Parliament.
Pakistan-Poland Relations

Brief

Diplomatic relations were established in 1962 and the resident missions were opened in the respective capitals in 1967.

Political Relations

  1. The Foreign Minister held a telephonic conversation with his Polish counterpart on 12 August 2019 to discuss the human rights situation in IOJ&K.
 
  1. At the invitation of the Polish Government, Federal Minister for Defence Mr. Khurram Dastgir paid an official visit to Warsaw from 17-19 April 2018. The key highlight of the visit was the signing of the Bilateral Defence Cooperation Agreement, which has been in the works for past many years.
 
  1. The Polish side extended a very warm welcome to our Defence Minister. At the Defence Ministry he was received by the Polish Defence Minister and presented a tri-service guard of honour. He held one on one meeting the Polish Defence Minister followed by a delegation level talk. Latter on the Minister laid a wreath at the tomb of Unknown Soldier, visit the museum of Warsaw Uprising and Headquarters of the Polish Armament Group (PGZ) and briefed by the President of the Group.
 
  1. At the invitation of Lt. Gen J. Mika General Commander of the Polish Armed Forces the Chief of the Army Staff (CAOS), General Qamar Javed Bajwa visited Poland from 18-22 June 2018. The programme including bilateral meetings as well as visits to the training areas and demonstration of Polish defence technology and equipment. He met with Defence Minister, Deputy Defence Minister in-charge of defence production and General Commander of the Polish Armed Forces. He also visited the office of state-run Polish Armaments Groups (PGZ).
 
  1. Air Marshall Arshad Mehmood Vice Chief of Air Staff along with a delegation of Pakistan Air Force participated in the ceremonies to mark the centenary of Polish Air Force on 23-27 August 2018. The Pakistani delegation brought two JF-17 and one super-Mushaq with them for the air show. Another visit of Chief of Air Staff to Poland is in the pipeline.
 
  1. At the invitation of the Polish Government, Federal Minister for Defence Production Rana Tanveer Hussain visited Poland from 3-6 September, 2017 to participate in the 25th International Defence Industry Exhibition (MSPO-2017) held in Kielce. Rana Tanveer Hussain met with Polish Minister of National Defence Mr. Antoni Macierewicz on 05 September, 2017. The two Ministers discussed bilateral relations with particular focus on cooperation in the field of defence production. They agreed that both the countries could benefit from each other expertise in this field.

  2. Rana Tanveer Hussain also held a meeting with Polish Deputy Minister for National Defence Mr. Bartosz Kownacki and discussed bilateral cooperation between defence production industries of the two countries.

  3. In September Inspector of the Polish Air Force visited Pakistan. Major General Jan Mrek Sliwaka, Deputy General Commander of the Polish Armed Forces visited Pakistan from 15-18 October 2018 on the invitation of Director General Joint Staff. Moreover, a delegation of Polish Armament Group participates in Karachi Defence Expo in a big way.

Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. The MoU on Bilateral Political Consultations between the Foreign Ministries of Pakistan and Poland was signed on 11 February, 2004. The mechanism provides good opportunity to review bilateral relations and find new avenues for mutual cooperation. The 6th Round of Bilateral Political Consultations was held in Islamabad on 25 October 2017. Mr. Zaheer Janjua, Additional Secretary (Europe) led the Pakistan side while Mr. Marek Magierowski, Deputy Foreign Minister for Economic, Asian and American Policy, of the Polish Foreign Ministry headed the Polish side.
 
Trade and Economic Relations  

  1. The volume of bilateral trade between Pakistan and Poland during 2018 was US $ 537.86 million. Exports from Pakistan to Poland were worth US $ 424.03 million. Pakistan imported from Poland goods of worth US $ 113.56.
 
  1. The main items which exported from Pakistan to Poland include oil seeds, salt, sulphur, ores, stones, plastering material, leather products, cotton, man-made staple fibers, articles of apparel & clothing accessories, other textile made ups, carpets & other floor coverings, surgical instruments, cutlery, aluminum & articles thereof and sports goods .
 
  1. Poland’s exports to Pakistan include items like products of animal origin, dairy products, flour, milk products, rubber and articles thereof, ceramic products, pharmaceuticals, organic/inorganic chemicals, machinery and auto parts.
 
  1. Polish Oil & Gas Company exploration in Pakistan PGNiG has been conducting petroleum exploration and production activities in Pakistan since 1997. In 2015, PGNIG discovered the Rizk Gas Field which was the second Tight Gas Field in the Kirthar Block. PGNIG has so far invested more than US$ 125 million in Pakistan including construction of over 50 kilometer gas transport pipeline and Rehman Gas production facility. PGNIG as in active pursuit to increase its footprint in Pakistan upstream Oil and Gas sector and as also interested to develop the Shale deposits in the country.
 
Defence Cooperation  

  1. The newly independent Pakistan needed professional pilots to train its own air force. Air Commodore Wladyslaw Turowicz and other Polish pilots in England were invited to Pakistan. Air Commodore Turowicz, Capt. Zofia Turowicz, Capt. Banach, Capt. Kaczmarek, Capt. Hrycak and Mr. and Mrs. Mikulski were some of the brave Polish Air Force officers who helped in laying the foundation of Pakistan Air Force. Air Commodore Turowicz died in Pakistan. It was due to their untiring efforts that by 1956, 21 young Pakistani pilots were trained to fly. Wladyslaw Turowicz also laid the foundation of SUPARCO. He fought in 1965 war and won the title of Defender of Lahore. He was awarded eight medals for his exemplary services for the defence of Pakistan and for the development of its aero-space industry.
 
  1. There is a strong growth in Pakistan-Poland defence relations in recent years. Official interaction is becoming more frequent. Pakistan’s Chief of Naval Staff paid a visit to Poland in 2015 and his Polish counterpart visited Pakistan in March, 2017. At the invitation of Chief of Army Staff the Inspector of Polish Land Forces visited Pakistan from 16-20 August, 2017. Chief of Air Staff visited Poland from 18-20 June 2018. Federal Minister for Defence Khurram Dastgir Khan visited Poland from17-19 April 2018. At the invitation of Air Chief Marshal the Inspector of Polish Land Forces visited Pakistan in September 2018.
 
Science and Technology, Culture, Education  

  1. The Program for Cooperation in the fields of Science, Education and Culture between Pakistan and Poland was signed in April 2007. The Program provided a sound base for cooperation in the fields of education, science and culture between Pakistan and Poland. In education cooperation Polish universities have signed various MoUs with Pakistani universities in many fields including social sciences and humanities, management sciences, medical education, and engineering.
 
Pakistani Community  

  1. As per the information received from Polish Office of Foreigners, the total number of legal Pakistanis in Poland is 995. Most of them are students, few professionals working in multinational companies and banks; and some are running small businesses of their own.
Pakistan-Romania relations

Brief

Pakistan and Romania have enjoyed cordial relations ever since the establishment of formal diplomatic relations in 1964. Since its joining of the European Union in 2007, Romania has expressed considerable goodwill to further enhance its relations with Pakistan in different fields.  

Political Relations  

  1. During the past few years, the high level political interactions between Pakistan and Romania have picked up pace. The former Speaker of National Assembly of Pakistan visited Romania in March 2016. Former Adviser to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs, held a meeting with the former Romanian Foreign Minister on the sidelines of the 11th ASEM Summit in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on 16 July 2016. The former Minister for Defence Production of Pakistan visited Romania in August 2016.
 
Bilateral Political Consultations  

  1. Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and Romania have an institutionalized mechanism of interactions in the form of regular Bilateral Political Consultations. The 9th round of Pakistan-Romania Bilateral Political Consultations was held in Bucharest on 05 December 2017.
 
Bilateral Trade  

  1. During 2018, Pakistan-Romania trade amounted to US $70.52 million. Romania’s exports to Pakistan stood at US $ 42.135 million while Pakistan’s exports to Romania amounted to US$ 28.388 million. Pakistan is importing oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, machinery and its parts, petroleum & chemical elements as well as compounds from Romania. Pakistan’s major exports to Romania include chemical material and products, material of animal origin, cotton fabric (woven), synthetic fabrics and manufactured textile goods.
 
  1. In July 2018, a trade mission led by the then President of the Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce and Industry visited Bucharest. During the visit, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was also concluded between Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce & Industry and the Romanian Chamber of Commerce & Industry.
 
  1. With a view to promoting Pakistani mangoes in the Romanian market, the Embassy of Pakistan, in collaboration with the Trade Development Authority of Pakistan (TDAP) organized a Mango Festival on 27 July 2019 in Bucharest.
 
Defence Cooperation  

  1. Defence relations between Pakistan and Romania are witnessing robust cooperation. In recent years, both sides have been actively participating in defence-related exhibitions held in the two countries. A bilateral Defence Cooperation Agreement between Pakistan and Romania entered into force in 2016.
 
  1. Pakistan and Romania have established a mechanism of Joint Military Committee for overseeing enhanced bilateral defence cooperation. The 3rd round of this Committee is scheduled to be held from 19-21 November, 2019 in Bucharest.
 
Cooperation in the fields of Education and Culture  

  1. Pakistan and Romania are currently negotiating a draft Programme of Cooperation in the fields of Education, Culture, Mass-media, Youth and Sports.
 
  1. With the aim of marking Pakistan’s cultural footprint in Romania, the first Pakistan Film Festival was organized by the Mission from 19-21 January 2018 in the Bucharest. Its second edition was held from 30-31 March 2019 in Bucharest. In 2017, the Embassy had arranged a ‘Pakistan FlashMob’ in Bucharest. The first ever Pakistan Golf Cup was organized by the Mission on 15 July 2018 in Bucharest. In addition to the above, Embassy of Pakistan actively participates in different Multicultural diplomatic festivals organized in Bucharest.
 
Pakistani Diaspora  

  1. The Pakistan community in Romania comprises of around 150 individuals. These include Pakistanis with such diverse background as professionals, businessmen, traders, shopkeepers and students.
Pakistan-Russia Relations

Brief

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and the Soviet Union were established in 1948.  The Soviet Union built Karachi Steel Mills, major thermal power facilities at Muzaffargarh, Multan and Guddu, and helped Pakistan in the establishment of OGDC and development of agriculture.  

Bilateral Relations  

  1. Prime Minister Imran Khan met Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev of Russia on the sidelines of the First China International Import Expo-2018 in Shanghai on 5 November 2018.
 
  1. Prime Minister Imran Khan held an informal meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin on the sidelines of SCO Council of Heads of State in Bishkek on 13 June 2019.
 
  1. Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi visited Moscow from 25-26 December 2018 and held delegation level talks with his Russian counterpart on 26 December 2018.
 
  1. Foreign Minister Qureshi held meeting with his Russian counterpart on the sidelines of SCO Council of Foreign Ministers in Bishkek on 22 May 2019. The two Foreign Ministers signed a Joint Statement on No First Placement of Weapons in Outer Space.
 
  1. The Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov called on the Prime Minister on the sidelines of the 74th session of UNGA at New York on 26 September 2019. Prime Minister reiterated his invitation for President Putin to visit Pakistan.
 
Institutional Mechanisms  

  1. Pakistan and Russia have strong institutional mechanisms in place for cooperation in diverse fields, including through Pakistan- Russia Strategic Dialogue, Pakistan- Russia Inter-Governmental Commission (IGC) on Trade, Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation, Joint Working Group on Energy Cooperation, Joint Working Group on Trade, Joint Coordination Committee on North–South Gas Pipeline, Consultative Group on Strategic Stability, Joint Working Group on Counter Terrorism, Consular Consultations and Consultations on Regional Issues.

Cooperation in Energy  

  1. In the field of energy, the two countries are actively pursuing collaboration. Pakistan and Russia have signed Agreements/MoUs related to the construction of North-South gas pipeline and supply of LNG and air mix plants. Other projects such as for construction of a 600 MW combined cycle power plant and gas-fired power plants are under discussion.  A Joint Working Group on Energy was also established within the framework of IGC. The sixth session was held in Islamabad on 27 December 2018.

Trade and Economic Cooperation  

  1. The volume of bilateral trade in 2018 reached US$ 733 million. Pakistan’s imports from Russia stood at US$ 419 million, while Pakistan’s exports stood at US$ 314 million.

Defence Cooperation

  1. The First ever Pakistan-Russia joint military exercise Frienship-2016 was held from 23 September-10 October 2016 in Cherat, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. About 70 Russian ground troops participated in the event. The second edition Friendship-2017 was held in Southern Russia from 23 September-04 October 2017. The third edition Friendship-III was held from 22 October- 4 November 2018 at Cherat and Pabbi, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The fourth edition of Druzhba-IV-2019 will be held in Russia in October/November 2019.

  2. The two navies also held two editions of Arabian Monsoon counter narcotics naval exercise in the Arabian Sea in November 2014 and December 2015 respectively. In 2018, the third edition of Arabian Monsoon was held during IDEAS-2018. A Russian warship participated in multilateral naval exercise AMAN-2017 from 10-14 February 2017. Pakistan Navy Ship ASLAT participated in Russian Naval Day celebrations in St. Petersburg in August 2018.

Educational and Cultural Cooperation

  1. Pursuant to the Agreement on Cooperation in the fields of Culture, Science and Education signed on 8 July 1997, the two sides signed a Programme to Implement Cultural, Educational and Scientific Exchanges for the period of 2003-2006 which was renewed for the period of 2007-2009. Currently, the draft of the Programme for renewal/extension is under consideration of the two sides.

  2. An MoU on Scientific and Technical cooperation was signed during the fourth session of IGC meeting held in Islamabad in November 2015. The Russian Ministry of Science and Education regularly offers scholarships to Pakistani students (both bachelors as well as postgraduate level studies) in various Russian universities and institutions. Russian government has offered 90 scholarships to Pakistani students in 2018.

SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANISATION (SCO)

  SCO is a permanent inter-governmental trans-regional organization. It was established on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai. Kazakhstan, People’s Republic of China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan are its founding members. Pakistan and India became SCO’s full members in 2017.   SCO is home to 43% of the world’s population and covers almost quarter of the global landmass. The region accounts for 25% of the global GDP.  

Pakistan’s Participation in SCO

  Pakistan had been participating in the SCO activities as an Observer since 2005. During the 17th Meeting of the Council of Heads of State of SCO in Astana, Kazakhstan on 8-9 June 2017, Pakistan was admitted as member of the SCO.   Since becoming full member in 2017, Pakistan has been actively participating in all SCO processes including at the leadership and experts level.

SCO Family

  Currently, SCO has the following Members, Observers and Dialogue Partners:  
  • Member States (Eight): Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Kyrgyz Republic, People’s Republic of China, Republic of India, Republic of Kazakhstan, Republic of Tajikistan, Republic of Uzbekistan and the Russian Federation.
  • Observer States (Four): Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Mongolia.
  • Dialogue Partners (Six): Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, Kingdom of Cambodia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Republic of Armenia and Republic of Turkey.
  SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.  

Objectives of SCO

  • Strengthening mutual confidence and good-neighbourly relations among member countries;
  • Making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region, and
  • Promoting effective cooperation in politics, trade and economy, science and technology, culture as well as education, energy, transportation, tourism, environmental protection and other fields;
  • Moving towards the establishment of a new, democratic, just and rational political and economic international order.

Key Areas of Significance to Pakistan:

  • SCO provides a useful platform to further strengthen our ties with our regional partners and extended neighbourhood.
  • Membership in SCO allows Pakistan to underscore its interest in regional peace, stability and development and our support for regional cooperation against terrorism and extremism.
  • SCO allows Pakistan to explore greater economic linkages and cooperation with Central Asian countries in the areas of energy and transport and promoting Pakistan as a regional trade corridor.
  • SCO membership helps us to put focus on intra-regional trade and promote connectivity. It is a good platform to give impetus to existing regional connectivity projects of Pakistan’s interest.
  • It provides a forum to convey Pakistan’s perspective to SCO member states on important regional issues and find common approaches to security, stability and regional peace.
 
The Prime Minister’s participation in the 19th Meeting of Council of the Heads of State (CHS) of SCO Member States (13-14 June 2019, Bishkek)  

Council of Heads of State of SCO Member States (CHS) is the highest decision making SCO organ. CHS takes strategic decisions to set priority areas and basic directions of SCO activities. The Prime Minister of Pakistan Imran Khan attended the 19th Meeting of CHS held in Bishkek on 13-14 June 2019. In his statement at the Summit, the Prime Minister inter alia underscored the historic, geographic and economic linkages between Pakistan and SCO region; highlighted myriad strengths of Pakistan and the process of transformation underway in the country; stressed the inextricable linkage between peace and development as the anchor of Pakistan’s foreign policy outlook; underlined the salience of CPEC in the context of connectivity and regional prosperity; shared Pakistan’s perspective on the rapidly changing global scenario; and articulated Pakistan’s positions on major issues such as Afghanistan; peace, progress and prosperity in South Asia; and tensions in the Gulf/Middle East. The Prime Minister proposed an 8-pronged course of action for SCO with a futuristic and forward-looking agenda, which inter alia included reinforcing cooperation that rejects confrontation; strengthening SCO’s core mandate of mitigating the risks of conflict; finalizing arrangements for trade in local currencies, and setting up SCO Fund and SCO Development Bank; and synergizing region-wide connectivity initiatives for infrastructure connectivity. Concluding the Summit, 14 landmark decisions on SCO’s future priorities related to political, security, trade and economic and cultural cooperation were signed. The participating Leaders also signed the Bishkek Declaration, a comprehensive document emphasizing the “Shanghai Spirit” characterized by mutual trust and benefit, equality, joint consultations, respect for cultural diversity and aspiration for collective development.
Pakistan-Serbia Relations

  Brief  

Pakistan and Serbia enjoy friendly relations. In 2018, the total volume of trade increased to over US$ 14.7 million from US$ 9 million in 2011. The balance of trade remains overwhelmingly in our favour at US$ 11.354 million. The biggest export items were rice, tobacco and allied materials, crude minerals, leather, textiles, garments, jackets, gloves, manufactures of metals, cutlery, sportswear, footballs, instruments for scientific, surgical, dental & veterinary use. The major import items were: machinery, animal products, feeding staff for animals, cork and wood, chemicals, iron & steel.  

  1. Pakistani community in Serbia is nominal and only 6-8 families are living in Belgrade. Serbia maintains an Honorary Consulate General in Karachi since September 2005. It has nominated a prominent businessman Mr. Tariq Rafi as Honorary Consul General.
Pakistan-Slovakia Bilateral Relations

Brief

Pakistan and the Slovak Republic enjoy cooperative relations. The Pakistan Embassy in Vienna was given concurrent accreditation for the Slovak Republic in 1996. Slovak Republic does not maintain diplomatic presence in Islamabad. Its Embassy in Tehran is concurrently accredited to Islamabad. The Slovak Commercial Counselor for Pakistan is also based in Tehran.

Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. The first ever bilateral political talks between the Foreign Ministries of Pakistan and the Slovak Republic were held in Bratislava on 30 November 2012. Slovak Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan (SRAP) also attended. Each side agreed to augment their cooperation and coordination at various international forums, including on Afghanistan. The last meeting was held in Bratislava on 4 June 2015.

Economic Relations

  1. The Pakistan-Slovak bilateral trade is modest, but gradually rising. In 2018, the total bilateral trade amounted to €48 million. Pakistan had a positive trade balance with the Slovak Republic amounting to € 24 million, with exports worth €36 million and imports amounting to €12 million.
 
  1. Pakistan’s major exports to the Slovak Republic have been cotton yarn, clothing, footwear with synthetic sole, sports items and chromium ores. Major items of import from the Slovak Republic include motor engines for special use, synthetic silk/rayon fibre, polyester fibre, products of iron and steel, ball bearing and motor vehicle parts.

Bilateral Agreements

  1. Pakistan and the Slovak Republic have agreements on Cultural Cooperation and Visa Abolition (for diplomatic and official passport holders only). Agreements on bilateral Economic Cooperation and Air Services are under consideration between the two countries.
 
Humanitarian Assistance  

  1. The Slovak government offered material humanitarian assistance to the flood victims in Pakistan in November 2011. A number of Slovak NGOs were involved in the relief effort operated in the flood-affected areas of Pakistan between the years 2010 and 2011. They helped disburse the Slovak material assistance under the aegis of the Slovak Agency for International Development Cooperation (SAID).

Pakistani Community in Slovak Republic

  1. There is a small Pakistani community in the Slovak Republic (exact figures are not available). Most of the Pakistanis residing in Slovakia are engaged in blue collar occupations or run small businesses. A small number of Pakistanis have also acquired Slovak nationality. A few Pakistani students pursue studies in Slovak universities.
Pakistan – Sweden Relations
 
Short Brief  

Sweden was the first Scandinavian country to establish diplomatic relations with Pakistan in 1949. Pakistan Embassy in Stockholm was set up in 1958.  

Bilateral Relations  

  1. The last major visit from Pakistan to Sweden was by former President Pervez Musharraf in 2004. However, there has been regular interaction between the leadership of the two countries on the sidelines of the major international events.
 
Bilateral Political Consultations  

  1. Bilateral Political Consultations between Pakistan and Sweden started in November 1992. The 15th Round of Pakistan-Sweden Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC) was held in Stockholm on June 8, 2017. The Pakistan delegation was led by Ambassador Zaheer A. Janjua, Additional Secretary (Europe), while the Swedish side was led by Ambassador Cecilia Ruthstrom-Ruin, Deputy Director General and Head of Department for Asia and Oceania, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The next round will be held in Islamabad on mutually agreed dates.
 
Trade and Economic Cooperation  

  1. Total trade between Pakistan and Sweden was US$ 488.6 million in 2018. Pakistan’s exports stood at US$ 153.5 million and imports were US $ 388.2 million.
 
  1. Pakistan’s imports are mainly industrial goods, chemicals, machinery transport equipment, agricultural products, minerals, paper and pulp, telecommunication apparatus and defence equipment. Multinational companies like Ericsson, SAAb, Tetrapak, Volvo, ABB and Alfa, and Laval dominate the Swedish exports.
 
  1. Pakistan’s major exports to Sweden are cotton fabrics, leather, textiles sports goods, carpets, rice and mangoes. IKEA, H&M and Lindex are major buyers of textile products and have their own offices in Pakistan.

  2. Swedish multinationals, such as Ericsson, Alfa Laval and Volvo, have been present in the Pakistan market for decades, and contributed to forming strong ties between the two countries. Swedish retail companies such as Ikea and H&M are major buyers of textile products from Pakistan. Several Swedish companies have also made direct investments in Pakistan, including Tetra Pak and Stora Enso. In total, more than twenty Swedish companies are represented in the Pakistan market. Sweden invested SEK 42 million in Pakistan in 2016. Major Companies working in Pakistan are ABB, Atlas Copco, Alfa Laval, Equinox, Ericsson, Panasian Group, SAAB, VPL, Oriflame, Profarm, SKF, Tetrapack, Wah Nobel, Bulleh Shah, Ecolean, Ikea, Lindex, Pulse etc.
 
Education and Cultural Cooperation  

  1. Sweden is a popular country for Pakistani students. Pakistani students are eligible to get scholarships to study in Sweden since the establishment of Swedish Institute Study Scholarships (SISS) in 2011. There is collaboration between the Swedish School of Textiles, Boras and the Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design (PIFD), Lahore. Under this collaboration, which was started in 2007, 37 students have so far benefited.
 
Defence Cooperation  

  1. There has been significant defence collaboration with Sweden which dates back to the early 1960s. Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan, undertook a visit to Sweden on 18-22 June, 2019 at the invitation of the Swedish defence giant SAAB. During the visit, the Air Chief held a meeting with Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces. Brig Gen Carl-Johan Edström, Deputy Chief of Swedish Air Force held a dinner reception in honor of the visiting dignitary.
 
Pakistani Community  

  1. The Pakistani community in Sweden numbers about 18000, including those with Swedish citizenship. Some Pakistanis have done well and are working in Swedish multinational companies. The community is largely located in Gothenburg, Malmo and Stockholm. There are about 13 Associations of Pakistanis in Stockholm.
Pakistan-Turkey Relations


Overview of bilateral relations

Pakistan and Turkey share unparalleled fraternal relations that are embedded in a shared historical, cultural and religious heritage. It’s a relationship that has transformed into a strong strategic partnership over the years. Both countries have supported each other in difficult times. Turkey has always supported Pakistan on our core national issues. Similarly Pakistan always reciprocates the same in all areas of mutual concern.

  1. Pak-Turk relations goes back to Turkish War of Independence when the Muslims of the northwestern British Raj sent financial aid to the declining Ottoman Empire, which was followed by the formation of the Turkish Republic and the Independence of Pakistan. As a result, Pakistan has enjoyed a positive image in Turkey and amongst Turks for many decades. The close cultural, historical and military relations have expanded into deepening economic relations as both countries seek to develop their economies.

  2. Turkey established diplomatic relations soon after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Turkey was among a few countries that quickly recognized Pakistan after its independence and supported its successful bid to become a member of the United Nations. Pakistan’s founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah expressed admiration for Turkey’s founding leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and also a desire to develop Pakistan on the Turkish model of modernism. Jinnah is honoured as a great leader in Turkey, and a major road of the Turkish capital Ankara, the Cinnah Caddesi is named after him, while roads in Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, and Larkana are named after Atatürk.

  3. There is similarity of views on most bilateral, regional and international issues of interest to both countries. Turkey supports Pakistan’s position on the Kashmir dispute. It supports Pakistan’s membership of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). Its support for Pakistan in the FATF is exemplary. It also supports Pakistan’s views on UN Security Council reform. Turkey was among the quickest responders with significant contribution during 2005 earthquake and 2010 floods in Pakistan.

  4. Pakistan too has supported Turkey on Northern Cyprus, FETO, etc. Pakistan was also among the first countries to express solidarity with the Turkish leadership when a coup was attempted in Turkey on 15 July 2016. Supreme Court of Pakistan, on 13 December 2018, gave a landmark judgment declaring FETO as Terrorist Organization and handing over of Pak-Turk Schools to Turkish Maarif Foundation.

  5. Pakistan-Turkey relations have been institutionalized in the form of the High-level Strategic Cooperation Council (HLSCC) and High Level Military Dialogue Group (HLMDG). There is a High Level Strategic Cooperation Council mechanism under which Summit level meetings are held every year, alternately in Turkey and Pakistan. Five rounds have been held so far and 6th round is expected to be held in Islamabad in 2019. More than 60 agreements/protocols/MoUs in various areas have been signed under the HLSCC.

  6. Total volume of bilateral trade is 322.94 million, with $132.28 million Pakistani exports, and $ 190.66 million imports). Turkish investments in Pakistan are reported as $ 2.7 billion. Numerous Turkish companies are working in Pakistan and have invested here including Arcelik, (Dawlance for $ 250 million in 2016); Zorlu Holding (56.4 MW wind energy project Jhimpir Sindh, two solar power projects of 100 MW and 200 MW at Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park); M/s Hayat Kimya ($ 150 million in household products, including diapers); Al-Bayrak Group (Metrobus projects in Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad and Multan, major partner in Lahore Solid Waste Management project).

  7. There is a significant number of Pakistani community living in Turkey which play an important role in strengthening bilateral relations especially between people to people contacts.

  8. Following cities of Pakistan and Turkey have also been declared as sister cities:
  • Istanbul – Lahore
  • Bursa – Multan
  • Islamabad – Ankara
  • Multan – Konya
Pakistan-Ukraine Relations

Brief

Pakistan recognized Ukraine immediately after its independence on 31December 1991. Diplomatic relations were established in March 1992. Pakistan opened its resident Mission in Kyiv in 1997 while Ukraine opened its Embassy in Islamabad in March 1998. Since the establishment of diplomatic ties, Pakistan and Ukraine have been enjoying friendly and cooperative relations.  

Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. An MoU on Bilateral Political Consultations between the two countries was signed in March 2005. The 6th round of the Bilateral Consultations was held in Kyiv on 6 June 2016. The next round will be held in Islamabad on mutually agreed dates.
 
  1. Both the countries have entered into a number of Agreements including on; Trade and Economic Cooperation, Establishment of Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation and Avoidance of Double Taxation etc. Several bilateral agreements are currently at various stages of negotiations, including Promotion & Reciprocal Protection of Investment, Air Services Agreement, Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Education, Agreement on Equivalence of Degrees, and Visa Abolition Agreement for Diplomatic and Official Passport Holders.
 
Parliamentary Cooperation  

  1. The initiative to bring parliamentarians of both countries closer by enhancing parliamentary interactions to strengthen bilateral relations was materialized by the end of 2013. Pakistan Friendship Group in Ukrainian Parliament and a Ukrainian Friendship Group in Pakistani Parliament were established.
 
  1. Both countries have also formed Parliamentary Friendships Groups in their respective parliaments to further improve bilateral parliamentary cooperation between the two countries.
 
Economic and Trade Relations:  

  1. Over the years, the Pakistan-Ukraine bilateral trade has steadily grown. In 2018 (Jan-Oct) total bilateral trade was US $ 165.23 million. Pakistan’s exports to Ukraine were US $ 59.6 million, while imports from Ukraine were US $ 105.64 million.

  2. In May 2007, our Minister for Petroleum & Natural Resources visited Ukraine and signed a Protocol of Intent on Cooperation between the Petroleum Ministries of the two countries.
 
  1. An Agreement for the Establishment of Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation was signed between the two countries on 25 July 2012 in Kyiv, Ukraine. The first session of the Joint Commission is expected to be held in the first quarter of 2020.
 
  1. To enhance direct links between the business community of the two countries, a Pakistan-Ukraine Business Council (PUBC) has been established both in the Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry; FPCCI (in 2011) and the Ukraine Chamber of Commerce and Industry; UCCI (in March 2012).
 
Defence Cooperation  

  1. Defence cooperation with Ukraine is the hallmark of our bilateral relations. The Agreement on Mutual Protection of Classified Information and an MoU on Military and Defence Production Cooperation between Pakistan and Ukraine were signed in November 2006. In pursuance of the MoU, the Pakistan-Ukraine Joint Commission on Military and Defence Production Cooperation was established in 2008. The inaugural meeting of the Commission was held on 08 October 2009 in Pakistan. In May 2013, Brig Kazim Mustehsan, former Defence Attaché at the Embassy at Kyiv has been awarded the Ukrainian Air Force Medal for enhancing relations between PAF and Ukrainian Air Force.
 
Educational and Cultural Cooperation  

  1. Around 300-400 Pakistani students are pursuing their studies in medicine, engineering and information technology in various Ukrainian universities. As regards the legal framework of bilateral cooperation between the two countries in field of education, the Agreements on Cooperation in the Field of Education and Agreement on Equivalence of Degrees and Academic Titles are under discussion by both sides.
 
  1. The MoU of cooperation between University of Agriculture Faisalabad and Podilya Agriculture University of Ukraine was signed in December 2014.

Pakistani community  

  1. The size of Pakistani community in Ukraine is very small (around 1300-1500). Majority of the Pakistani community are engaged in running small scale businesses of textile, leather etc.

SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANISATION (SCO)

SCO is a permanent inter-governmental trans-regional organization. It was established on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai. Kazakhstan, People’s Republic of China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan are its founding members. Pakistan and India became SCO’s full members in 2017.

SCO is home to 43% of the world’s population and covers almost quarter of the global landmass. The region accounts for 25% of the global GDP.

Pakistan’s Participation in SCO

Pakistan had been participating in the SCO activities as an Observer since 2005. During the 17th Meeting of the Council of Heads of State of SCO in Astana, Kazakhstan on 8-9 June 2017, Pakistan was admitted as member of the SCO.

Since becoming full member in 2017, Pakistan has been actively participating in all SCO processes including at the leadership and experts level.

SCO Family

Currently, SCO has the following Members, Observers and Dialogue Partners:

  • Member States (Eight): Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Kyrgyz Republic, People’s Republic of China, Republic of India, Republic of Kazakhstan, Republic of Tajikistan, Republic of Uzbekistan and the Russian Federation.
  • Observer States (Four): Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Mongolia.
  • Dialogue Partners (Six): Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, Kingdom of Cambodia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Republic of Armenia and Republic of Turkey.

SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.

Objectives of SCO

  • Strengthening mutual confidence and good-neighbourly relations among member countries;
  • Making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region, and
  • Promoting effective cooperation in politics, trade and economy, science and technology, culture as well as education, energy, transportation, tourism, environmental protection and other fields;
  • Moving towards the establishment of a new, democratic, just and rational political and economic international order.

 

Key Areas of Significance to Pakistan:

  • SCO provides a useful platform to further strengthen our ties with our regional partners and extended neighbourhood.
  • Membership in SCO allows Pakistan to underscore its interest in regional peace, stability and development and our support for regional cooperation against terrorism and extremism.
  • SCO allows Pakistan to explore greater economic linkages and cooperation with Central Asian countries in the areas of energy and transport and promoting Pakistan as a regional trade corridor.
  • SCO membership helps us to put focus on intra-regional trade and promote connectivity. It is a good platform to give impetus to existing regional connectivity projects of Pakistan’s interest.
  • It provides a forum to convey Pakistan’s perspective to SCO member states on important regional issues and find common approaches to security, stability and regional peace.

 

The Prime Minister’s participation in the 19th Meeting of Council of the Heads of State (CHS) of SCO Member States (13-14 June 2019, Bishkek)

Council of Heads of State of SCO Member States (CHS) is the highest decision making SCO organ. CHS takes strategic decisions to set priority areas and basic directions of SCO activities.

The Prime Minister of Pakistan Imran Khan attended the 19th Meeting of CHS held in Bishkek on 13-14 June 2019. In his statement at the Summit, the Prime Minister inter alia underscored the historic, geographic and economic linkages between Pakistan and SCO region; highlighted myriad strengths of Pakistan and the process of transformation underway in the country; stressed the inextricable linkage between peace and development as the anchor of Pakistan’s foreign policy outlook; underlined the salience of CPEC in the context of connectivity and regional prosperity; shared Pakistan’s perspective on the rapidly changing global scenario; and articulated Pakistan’s positions on major issues such as Afghanistan; peace, progress and prosperity in South Asia; and tensions in the Gulf/Middle East.

The Prime Minister proposed an 8-pronged course of action for SCO with a futuristic and forward-looking agenda, which inter alia included reinforcing cooperation that rejects confrontation; strengthening SCO’s core mandate of mitigating the risks of conflict; finalizing arrangements for trade in local currencies, and setting up SCO Fund and SCO Development Bank; and synergizing region-wide connectivity initiatives for infrastructure connectivity.

Concluding the Summit, 14 landmark decisions on SCO’s future priorities related to political, security, trade and economic and cultural cooperation were signed. The participating Leaders also signed the Bishkek Declaration, a comprehensive document emphasizing the “Shanghai Spirit” characterized by mutual trust and benefit, equality, joint consultations, respect for cultural diversity and aspiration for collective development.

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