Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations

The key principles of Pakistan’s policy towards Afghanistan include strengthening people-to-people contacts,deepening trade and transit ties, undertaking joint connectivity and energy projects for enhanced economic integration, working together for bringing peace in Afghanistan, non-interference in the internal affairs and not allowing respective territories to be used against each other.

Building close cooperative relations with Afghanistan is a high priority of Pakistan’s foreign policy and a vital component of our vision of a “peaceful neighbourhood.” Pakistan continues its efforts for forging a friendly and good-neighbourly relationship with Afghanistan, on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity. Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi undertook his maiden foreign visit to Kabul highlighting the importance that Pakistan attaches to its relations with Afghanistan.

In pursuance of its policy of attending all international forum geared towards bringing peace, stability and development in Afghanistan, Pakistan participated in the meetings of Kabul Process-I&II, RECCA, Moscow Format on Afghanistan, SCO Contact Group on Afghanistan, International Contact Group on Afghanistan, Six Party Talks and others.

High Level Exchanges:

Through various High Level Exchanges, such as President Ashraf Ghani’s visit to Islamabad (27-28 June 2019) and Foreign Minister of Pakistan’s three visits to Kabul (his maiden foreign visit was to Kabul on 15 September 2018), Pakistan and Afghanistan have continuously strengthened the bilateral relations of amity and brotherhood.

Pakistan’s Development Assistance

In June last year, Pakistan’s development assistance to Afghanistan reached US$ 1 billion. The country’s development assistance is geared towards investment in infrastructure, education, health, agriculture and capacity building of Afghan professionals. Pakistan has setup healthcare facilities in Afghanistan including three hospitals, i.e., 200-bed Jinnah Hospital Kabul, 80-bed Nishtar Kidney Center in Jalalabad and 100-bed Naib Aminullah Khan Logar Hospital. Jinnah hospital Kabul and Nishtar Kidney center have been handed over to Afghanistan. Pakistan’s infrastructure projects in Afghanistan include Torkham-Jalalabad Road (75 Km), Torkham-Jalalabad Additional Carriage way (73 Km), 15 Weigh Bridges, donation of road construction machinery, construction of internal road in Jalalabad and donation of telecom and electricity system.

Besides providing scholarships to almost 4000 Afghan students, Pakistan has constructed Rehman Baba School and Hostel in Kabul, Allama Iqbal Faculty of Arts at Kabul University, Sir Syed Science Block at Nangarhar University Jalalabad and Liaqat Ali Khan Engineering Block at Balkh University in Mazar-e-Sharif. Pakistan is also providing 3,000 fully-funded scholarships to Afghan students. Selection test of the first batch of the Afghan students for 3,000 scholarships was conducted last year. Responding to demand from Afghanistan, we have added categories of Masters and PhD programs. of 3000 students was made in Pakistan has pledged US $ 2 million for the Afghan students to pursue business management degrees at the Lahore University of Management Science (LUMS). Around 50,000 Afghans who studied in our educational institutions are currently serving their country.

Pakistan is also assisting Afghanistan in capacity building in the fields of agriculture, banking, railways, military and diplomacy. The government initiated capacity building projects for Afghan healthcare professionals, under which 59 Afghan medical professionals including doctors, nurses, and technicians successfully completed their training in 2017. In addition, 42 Afghan healthcare professionals have started training at Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar.

Trade and Economic Relations

The two countries have substantial trade linkages. Pakistan is Afghanistan ‘s largest trade partner. According to Afghanistan Central Statics Organization (CSO), Ministry of Finance, during Afghanistan’s FY 2018 (22 December 2017- 21 December 2018), Pak- Afghan bilateral trade remained the highest and reached US$ 1,437 million followed by Afghanistan- Iran at US$ 1,284 million and China at US$ 1,098. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS) has reported an increase of 18.33% in Pakistan’s export to Afghanistan in year 2017-18 (July-June) over preceding corresponding year (2016-17) i.e. from US$1,171 to US$ 1,476 million.

The two sides have the following institutional mechanisms in the domain of trade and economic cooperation:

a). Afghanistan Pakistan Transit Trade Cooperation Authority (APTTCA)

b). Pak-Afghan Joint Chamber of Commerce & Industry

c). Pakistan-Afghanistan Joint Business Council

d). Joint Economic Commission (JEC)

e). Afghan-Pakistan Action Plan for Peace and Solidarity (APAPPS)

Afghan Refugees

Pakistan has hosted millions of Afghan refugees for the last four decades. There are around 2.8 million Afghan refugees currently living in Pakistan.

Pakistan is working with Afghanistan and international organization i.e. UNHCR and IOM for their safe, dignified, sustainable and voluntary return to their homeland under various UN strategies (SSAR).
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok. It is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten countries in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and socio cultural integration among its members and other countries in Asia. The ASEAN Secretariat is located at Jakarta, Indonesia.

Pakistan became Sectoral Dialogue Partner in 1993. It has cordial relations with all member states of ASEAN.
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)

The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is a forum formed by ASEAN in 1994 as a vehicle for dialogue and consultation on matters related to politics and security in the region, as well as to discuss and equate views between ARF participating countries to minimize threats to regional stability and security. ARF is based upon the concept of comprehensive security does not only cover military aspects and traditional security issues, but also relates to political, economic, social and other issues such as non-traditional security issues.

It comprises 27 members: the 10 ASEAN member states; the 10 ASEAN dialogue partners (Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, India, Japan, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Russia and the United States); Bangladesh, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Timor-Leste; and one ASEAN observer, Papua New Guinea. Pakistan is an ARF member since 2004.
Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD)

The Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), established in 2002 in Thailand, is a continent-wide forum, which provides a platform to Asian countries to regularly exchange views on areas of mutual interest and foster an Asian community without duplicating other organizations or creating a bloc against others. Currently, the ACD comprises 34 countries and its Provisional Secretariat is in Kuwait City.

Pakistan is one of the founding members of ACD, and a Prime-Mover for the Pillar of Connectivity. Pakistan has established a Joint Working Group (JWG) on connectivity with other Co-Prime Movers.
Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM)

The Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) is an intergovernmental process established in 1996 to foster dialogue and cooperation between Asia and Europe. Presently it comprises 53 Partners: 30 European and 21 Asian countries, the European Union and the ASEAN Secretariat. ASEM addresses political, economic, financial, social, cultural, and educational issues of common interest in a spirit of mutual respect and equal partnership.

Pakistan joined ASEM in 2006. Since then, Pakistan has regularly participated in Ministerial and Summit meetings of ASEM.
Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF)
Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF) is the only permanently established institution of ASEM and is funded by voluntary contributions from its member governments and shares the financing of its projects with its civil society partners across Asia and Europe. It promotes greater mutual understanding between Asia and Europe through intellectual, cultural and people-to-people exchanges. Through ASEF, civil society concerns are included as a vital component of deliberations of the ASEM.  ASEF was established in February 1997 by the participating governments and organizations of ASEM.
Brief on
Pakistan- Austria Relations

Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Austria have been friendly and cooperative ever since Pakistan formally recognized Austria and established diplomatic ties in 1956. The Pakistan Embassy in Vienna was established in August 1965, completing 50 years of diplomatic relations in 2006. Austria opened its honorary consulate in Karachi on 1 March 2015 to further strengthen bilateral ties and economic relations.

Political Relations

  1. The former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif met Karlheinz Kopf, the Second President of the National Council of Austria on 26 November 2016 in Ashgabat on the side lines of Global Sustainable Transport Conference. The former Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi met Federal Chancellor of Austria Sebastian Kurz in China’s Hainan province on the sidelines of BOAO Forum for Asia on 10 April 2018 and invited Chancellor Kurz to visit Pakistan. President AJK Sardar Masood Khan during his visit to Vienna from 27-31 May 2018 had useful interaction with Austrian think-tanks and emphasized that Jammu and Kashmir dispute can be resolved through dialogue and diplomacy within the framework of the United Nations.

Bilateral Political Consultations
  1. The two sides hold regular Bilateral Political Consultations. The 4th round of Pakistan-Austria Bilateral Political Consultations was held in Vienna on 28 March 2019. The two sides discussed the entire spectrum of relations including, political, economic, trade and investment, education and people-to-people contacts.

Economic Cooperation

  1. The total bilateral trade in 2019 (Jan-Sep) was Euro 371.025 million. Pakistan’s exports to Austria were recorded at Euro 261.549 million and Pakistan’s imports from Austria were recorded at Euro 109.476 million.
  1. Pakistan major exports to Austria have traditionally been cotton yarn and related products, leather and leather products, carpets, clothing surgical and sports goods. We also export smaller quantities of knitwear, iron ore, suitcases, bags and shoes, hand tools, fruits etc. Imports consist of chemicals, machinery and its components, spare parts, petroleum products, dairy and other food items. Over 200 Austrian companies export their products regularly to Pakistan. The vast majority of Austrian companies, however, are small and middle-sized. Because of capacity constraints, these companies are focused on the surrounding region and EU. Similarly, for import of goods, Austrian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have a preference for Germany and the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region.

  2. Several Austrian firms have brought investments to Pakistan, including, OMV. OMV is the largest Austrian oil and gas exploration, processing and marketing firm in Pakistan. It established its office in Islamabad in 1991. OMV is also the largest international investor in the energy sector in Pakistan with total investments of over 2.5 billion US dollars including joint ventures.

  3. Technischer Überwachungs-Verein (TÜV), a 145-year old company, has a “Bureau of Inspection & Certification” in Lahore with a branch office in Karachi. It also has 49 percent shares in Moody International Pakistan. TÜV is involved in certification, inspection and training provisions of industry, energy, infrastructure, and transportation, which play an important role in increasing Pakistan’s exports, particularly to Europe, USA, Far East Asia and the Middle East.

Education Cooperation

  1. There are about 40 Pakistani students in various universities of Austria. Pakistani students have left a very positive impression in their universities and faculties through their hard work. The KPK Government is working on a project worth of US$ 90 million to establish an institute in Haripur in collaboration with six universities of Austria. The institute is expected to have various polytechnic departments and the degrees will be awarded by the Austrian Universities for respective disciplines.

Pakistani Community in Austria

  1. There are approximately 10,000 Pakistanis living in Austria. Major concentrations of Pakistanis in Austria are in Vienna, Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Salzburg and Styria.
Pakistan- Australia Relations
Pakistan established diplomatic relations with Australia in 1948 soon after its independence. Australia has played an important role in the progress and development of Pakistan as well as of the South Asian region. The first UN mediator between India and Pakistan was Sir Owen Dixon, Sixth Chief Justice of Australia; Australia is one of the founding contributors to UNMOGIP; the first Chief of General Staff of Pakistan was Lt Gen Ross Cairns Mc Cay, an Australian. It is a strong and deep relationship which is also underpinned by common English language; similar legal and administrative systems. Both the countries are Westminster style democracies and have passion for cricket and hockey. At present, there are around 16 Australian companies involved in investment and joint ventures in Pakistan.

Pakistan and Australia have established mechanism of Bilateral Political Consultations to overview bilateral relations and to identify opportunities and possibilities for further cooperation. The sixth round of Bilateral Political Consultations was held at Islamabad in August 2016. Both countries have also established Joint Trade Committee and Joint Working Group (JWG) on Border Management and Transnational Crime to further strengthen bilateral cooperation. The seventh meeting of Joint Working Group was held at Canberra in February 2019.
Pakistan- Azerbaijan Relations
Both Pakistan and Azerbaijan enjoy close and cordial relations since latter’s independence in 1991. Both support each other at international arena and provide reciprocal support for Jammu & Kashmir dispute and Nagorno-Karabakh issue. Due to Azerbaijan, Pakistan does not recognize Armenia.

High-level visits

There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.

From Pakistan:

  • 2016– Former PM Muhammad Nawaz Sharif paid an official visit to Azerbaijan from 13-15 October 2016.

  • 2015-President Mamnoon Hussain visited Azerbaijan from 11-14 March, 2015.

From Azerbaijan:

  • 2017-Ilham Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan visited Islamabad to participate in the 13th ECO Summit held on 1 March 2017.

Trade and Economic

Azerbaijan is rich in minerals, with huge deposits of oil & gas reserves, that constitute 90% of its exports. It has proven reserves of 7 billion barrels of oil and 991 billion cubic meters of gas. During 2017-18, bilateral trade between Pakistan and Azerbaijan was USD.15.21 million. Pakistan exports rice, vegetables, fruits and fruit pulp, medical and pharmaceutical products, cotton fabrics and synthetic fabrics Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan’s exports to Pakistan include raw cotton, chemicals, fats and oil, non-ferrous metals, etc. Pakistan’s Trade with Azerbaijan – US $ Million

Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 12.44 2.77 15.21
2016-17 21.80 0.08 21.88
Pakistan-Bahrain Relations

Bahrain is an important member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, widely regarded as financial and trade hub of the Gulf region.  Bahrain is known for its vital strategic importance for the oil rich Gulf region. Pakistan and Bahrain exchange high level visits frequently. Institutional mechanisms between Pakistan and Bahrain comprise of Bilateral Political Consultations and Joint Ministerial Commission. The two countries also enjoy historical defence ties. Bahrain hosts over 100,000 Pakistanis comprising blue-collar workers, highly placed professionals and businesspersons, who are contributing to the socio-economic development of the Kingdom and are considered a bridge between the two nations.

Leadership-level Interaction

Pakistan Side:

  • Prime Minister Imran Khan visited Bahrain on 16 December 2019, to attend the National day celebrations of Bahrain as Guest of Honor.
  • Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Bahrain in January 2015.
  • Former President Asif Ali Zardari visited Bahrain on in August 2011.
  • Chairman Senate along with a delegation visited Bahrain from 19-21 February 2020.

Bahrain side:

  • HM King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa visited Pakistan in March 2014.
  • The Prime Minister of Bahrain Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa visited Pakistan in June 2005
  • Foreign Minister Shaikh Khalid Bin Ahmed Mohammed Al Khalifa visited Pakistan in February 2017 and April 2019.
  • HRH General Shaikh Mohammed Bin Isa Al Khalifa, Commander Bahrain National Guard visited Pakistan in January 2017 and March 2019.

Economic Cooperation:

Pakistan-Bahrain trade volume remains in the range US$ 150 million due smaller size of Bahrain’s economy and limited number of items Pakistan exports to Bahrain. Pakistan-Bahrain trade figures for the past two years are as under:
 Value in US$ millions

Year Exports Imports Total Trade
2017-18 49.58 89.11 138.69
2018-19 63.51 45.72 109.23
Source: State bank of Pakistan
Pakistan-Belarus Relations

Pakistan recognized Belarus in December 1991 and formal diplomatic relations were established in February 1994. There is convergence of views between the two countries on a host of regional and international issues.

Political Relations

  1. Bilateral relations developed at an accelerated pace in last few years with high-level exchanges. President Lukashenko visited Pakistan twice (from 28-29 May 2015 and 04-06 October 2016) and Prime Minister Andrei Kobyakov paid an official visit to Pakistan from 9-11 November 2015. Former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif visited Belarus from 10-12 August 2015. A meeting was held on the sidelines of the Belt and Road Forum in Beijing on 14 May 2017 between the Former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Alexander Lukashenko.

  2. Prime Minister Imran Khan held a meeting with President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko on the sidelines of SCO Council of Heads of State in Bishkek in June 2019.

Institutional Mechanisms

  1. Pakistan and Belarus have developed several institutional mechanisms for cooperation in diverse fields. The two countries hold Annual Political Consultations at the Additional Secretary/Deputy Foreign Minister level to review the entire spectrum of bilateral relationship. The latest (fourth) round was held in Islamabad on 26 November 2019.

  2. Pursuant to the Inter-Governmental Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation of May 1997, the two countries have established a Joint Commission on Trade and Economic Cooperation (JEC) at Ministerial level. It held its fifth meeting in Grodno from 15-16 November 2017.

  3. Other institutional mechanisms include: (i) Joint Commission on Science and Technology (JCST); (ii) Joint Working Group on Industrial Cooperation; and (iii) Joint Working Group on Agricultural Cooperation. A Joint Working Group on Healthcare and Pharmaceutics has been established. An Inter-Governmental Commission on Military and Technical Cooperation has also been established, which has held two sessions.

  4. The two sides have established inter-parliamentary linkages in the form of friendship groups in their respective parliaments. A Joint Business Council (JBC) has also been established, which has held three sessions so far; first in Islamabad in May 2015, second in Minsk in August 2015; and third in Karachi on 11 March 2016.

Trade, Business and Investment Cooperation

  1. The bilateral trade in 2018 amounted to US $ 49.90 million. Pakistan’s exports to Belarus were US $ 13.48 million, while imports stood at US $ 36.42 million. The balance of trade has remained in favour of Belarus during the last eight years.

  2. Pakistan’s major items of export to Belarus include cereals, textiles, articles of apparel, fruits and vegetables, and pharmaceuticals. Major items of import from Belarus include petroleum, tractors, machinery and auto parts, and synthetic fiber.

  3. Given the Belarusian expertise in building of heavy machinery and equipment, and the consequent opportunity it offers to Pakistani entrepreneurs, the two sides are closely collaborating to establish joint production ventures of automotive engineering, agricultural harvesting machinery, road construction machinery, dump trucks etc.

Educational and Vocational Training Cooperation

  1. Pakistan and Belarus have signed 19 agreements/MoUs in the field educational cooperation, including an MoU on Cooperation in the Field of Vocational Education, signed on 5 October 2016. In addition, several MoUs have been signed between universities/institutes and seven additional agreements are under process. Areas of cooperation include mutual recognition of degrees/certificates, admissions in respective universities, establishment of language training facilities, exchange of researchers, teachers and student, joint research, vocational training and skills development.

Scientific and Technological Cooperation

  1. Pakistan and Belarus have signed an Agreement on Science and Technology Cooperation and 3 MoUs in the sphere of scientific and technological cooperation. Areas of collaboration include long term cooperation between Science and Technology organizations in research and development, procedures as well as financing.

Culture Cooperation

  1. The two sides have so far signed 9 Agreement/MoUs each in the field of culture, information and media, and inter-regional cooperation (among respective provinces). Pursuant to the agreements/MoUs on cultural cooperation, the Belarusian side has established a Culture and Information Centre at the National Library of Pakistan in Islamabad while the Pakistan side is yet to establish the Centre in Minks due to funding issues.
Bilateral Brief
Pakistan–Belgium Relations


Pakistan and Belgium enjoy friendly and cooperative relations, both at the bilateral level and as a member of the European Union.

  1. Abdul Razak Dawood, Advisor to the Prime Minister on Commerce, travelled to Brussels, as part of Pakistan’s high-level lobbying efforts to secure its GSP Plus. The Advisor to the Prime Minister met several MEPs, including leaders of political groups and Chairs/Vice Chairs of the European Parliament, and key officials of the European Union, including Special Representative of the European Union on Human Rights, Mr. Eamon Gilmore

  1. A Belgium-Pakistan Friendship Group exists in the Belgian Federal Parliament. The National Assembly of Pakistan also has a Parliamentary Friendhsip Group with Belgium, with the Speaker National Assembly as its president. Chairman, Senate of Pakistan has constituted a similar group in the Senate.

  1. A three-member delegation from Senate of Pakistan, comprising Senators Faisal Javed, Senator Najma Hameed and Senator Sardar Shafiq Tareen visited Brussels from 27-29 September 2018, for attending10th Asia-Europe parliamentary meeting. Availing this opportunity, they also interacted with Pakistani community and listened to their problems.

Economic Relations

  1. An agreement for establishment of Joint Commission (JC) on economic cooperation was signed between the Government of Pakistan and Belgium in November 1986. So far four sessions of the JC have been held (the last session was held in Brussels in July 2006 after a gap of twelve years). During the 4th session Pakistan delegation was led by Mr. Khalid Saeed, Secretary EAD.

  1. Belgium, though small in size, has made full capital of its location at the crossroads of Europe. It has a highly developed transport network, and a diversified industrial and commercial base.
  1. Belgium is the seventh largest European importer of Pakistani goods, after Germany, UK, Italy, Spain, France and the Netherlands. The bilateral trade between Pakistan and Belgium was over €877 million for 2018. The bilateral trade for the first 9 months of 2019 stood at Euros 638.36 million.
  1. A Memorandum of Understanding between Trade Development Authority of Pakistan and the Belgian Regional Trade Promotion Agencies was signed in February 2019.

Pakistani Community
  1. The Pakistani community in Belgium is estimated at around fifteen thousand, a majority having become Belgian nationals through naturalization. As per the latest available figures, there are 6411 legal residents of Pakistan in Belgium. A few from the second generation of Pakistanis have entered professions like medicine, law, banking and IT. However, most of them are engaged in small businesses.
  1. Moreover, at present approximately 200 students from Pakistan are studying at various educational institutions in Belgium. Most of them are enrolled in Masters and PhD programmes in technical disciplines, including engineering and computer sciences.
  1. Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi held a telephonic conversation with his Belgian counterpart, Didier Reynders on August 27, 2019. During the call, Foreign Minister Qureshi apprised him about the steps taken by Indian government to change the disputed status of Indian Occupied Jammu and Kashmir and its demographic structure. He added that these steps were in contravention of the UNSC resolutions on Jammu and Kashmir and the International Law. Foreign Minister Qureshi also underscored that India has progressively reneged on its commitments to the Security Council, other states Pakistan and the people of Jammu and Kashmir.
  1. The President of AJK visited Brussels and addressed a conference on Kashmir at the European Parliament, organized by the Friends of Kashmir Group in the European Parliament on 13 September 2019. He called on the international community to take firm actions to check unprecedented violations of human rights in the Indian Occupied Kashmir.
Pakistan-Bosnia Relations

Pakistan recognized the independence of Bosnia from Yugoslavia in 1992 and contributed its troops as part of UN Peacekeeping forces to the former Yugoslavia during the war years. Bosnia acknowledges the special assistance provided by Pakistan during the Bosnian War of 1992-1995 and thereafter. Bosnia provided financial assistance and sent medical teams to Pakistan during 2005 earthquake.

Political Relations

  1. Prime Minister Imran Khan met with President Sefik Dzaferovic of Bosnia on the sidelines of 14th OIC Summit in Makkah in May 2019. During the meeting, the Prime Minister extended an invitation to the President of Bosnia to visit Pakistan. The President of Bosnia accepted the invitation.
Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. The inaugural session of Pakistan-Bosnia and Herzegovina Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC) was held in Sarajevo on 8 December 2016. The Pakistan delegation was led by Ambassador Zaheer A. Janjua, Additional Secretary (Europe), while the Bosnian side was led by Mr. Amer Kapetanovic, Assistant Minister for Bilateral Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Economic and Trade Relations  

  1. According to statistics from Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, the total bilateral trade in 2018 was US$ 1.66 million. Major exports of Bosnia include metals, clothing and wood products. Major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs.
Financial Assistance to Bosnia & Herzegovina

  1. Pakistan has been extending various credit facilities and financial assistance to Bosnia in the past. Such as Pakistan extended a loan of US$ 20 million to Bosnia in 1992 as export credit. This loan was written off in June 2005. Pakistan also provided a piece of land for construction of the Bosnian Embassy in Islamabad. US$ 1 million was given by Pakistan to help the flood victims in 2014. A plane load of relief goods was also sent to Bosnia.
Defence Cooperation

  1. The two sides are cooperating through exchange of high level visits, official delegations, offers of seats in training courses and contracts for defence related products.
Cooperation in the fields of Education/ Science/Culture
  1. Pakistan and Bosnia have been pursuing educational and cultural cooperation. An Iqbal Chair has been set up at the University of Sarajevo. The focus of educational cooperation is on exchange of students & faculty members and acquiring foreign funded research projects. NUST and Sarajevo University have also exchanged visits and are developing cooperation in engineering field. Delegation of the Sarajevo University led by its Rector visited Pakistan in February, 2014 in response to the NUST’s delegation’s visit to Sarajevo in September, 2013.
Pakistan Community
  1. There is a very small Pakistani community in Bosnia and Herzegovina of around twenty to thirty Pakistanis. Most of them are married to Bosnian woman and have acquired Bosnian nationality. Some of them have their own small business set ups.

Pakistan-Brunei Darussalam Relations

Pakistan established diplomatic relations with Brunei on 9 February 1984 and established its High Commission in Bandar Seri Begawan in 1985; while Brunei established its High Commission in Islamabad in 1992. Pakistan’s relations with Brunei are marked by cordiality, warmth and cooperation.

The two countries also have established the mechanisms Bilateral Political Consultations and Joint Economic Commission to overview bilateral relations in different areas of cooperation.
Brief on
Pakistan-Bulgaria Relations

Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established in 1965. Bulgaria opened its Embassy in Islamabad in 1968. However, Pakistan’s Mission remained closed in Bulgaria from 1980 to 2009, while the Bulgarian diplomatic mission continued to function. During the interregnum, Parep Bucharest received the concurrent accreditation of Bulgaria. Eventually, Pakistan reopened its Embassy in Sofia on 12 June 2009 and has been functioning since.

  1. There are three Honorary Consulates of Bulgaria in Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar. In 2015, both countries commemorated the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations during which Bulgaria issued a post card to mark the occasion.

Bilateral relations

  1. There have been no high-level visits of Head of State or Head of Government from Pakistan. The former Bulgarian Foreign Minister Nikolay Mladenov visited Pakistan in January 2011. During the visit, Agreement on Economic Cooperation was signed between the two sides.

Parliamentary Friendship Group

  1. A Pakistan-Bulgaria Parliamentary Friendship Group was established in Bulgaria’s National Assembly in 2009. A similar group was established in our National Assembly in 2010. The Bulgarian side had invited its Pakistani counterparts to Bulgaria in October 2016 and November 2017. The visits, however, could not take place.

Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC)

  1. The inaugural session of the BPC was held in Sofia on 7 April 2008. The last round was held in Sofia from 7-8 December 2017. The whole gamut of bilateral ties was discussed from the political, cultural, defence, economic and trade spheres. The 4th Round of the BPC was held in Islamabad on 5 November 2019.

Trade and Investment

  1. Pakistan-Bulgaria trade has traditionally remained low mainly because Bulgaria’s foreign trade is limited to a few markets, primarily EU, Russia and China. The total bilateral trade in 2018 was US$ 34.2 million. Pakistan’s exports were US$ 20.8 million while imports from Bulgaria were US$ 13.4 million.

Inter-governmental Commission on Economic Cooperation

  1. The inaugural session of Inter-Governmental Commission (IGC) was held in Sofia from 22-23 June 2015. Mr. Lyuben Petrov, Deputy Minister of Economy of Bulgaria and Mr. Omar Hamid Khan, Additional Secretary, EAD led their respective delegations.

  2. The second session of Intergovernmental Commission (IGC) was held in Islamabad from 21-22 May 2019. The session provided an important opportunity to review the existing cooperation in economic and trade fields and explore new areas of cooperation. The two sides also signed Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation.

Pakistan-Bulgarian Business Forum

  1. Inaugural session of Pakistan-Bulgaria Business Forum was held in Sofia on 22 June 2015. Businessmen from Pakistan and Bulgaria, along with officials from the Ministry of Economy, BSEMPA and Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce attended the opening ceremony. Later, B-to-B meetings were held between the businessmen.


  1. An MoU between Government College University Lahore and Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski was concluded in 2017. This was followed by signing of collaboration agreements between Trakia University Stara Zagora and University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore; National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) and South-West University Neofit Rilksi, Sofia; and Agriculture University of Plovdiv and University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

  2. There are approximately 22 Pakistani students studying at various Bulgarian academic institutions.

Pakistani Community

  1. The Pakistani community in Bulgaria is approximately 80 individuals. These include Pakistanis who have married Bulgarian nationals and are engaged in white-collar professions, especially in the IT sector.
Pakistan-Cambodia Relations

Formal diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Cambodia were established on 28th May 1952. Pakistan was among the first countries to recognize independence of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Relations between Pakistan and Cambodia have remained friendly and cooperative through vicissitudes of times. In October 2017, former Chairman Senate Mr. Raza Rabbani visited Cambodia for participation in the 1st Executive Council Meeting of Asia Parliamentary Assembly (APA) and held meeting with the Prime Minister of Cambodia.
Pakistan’s Relations with Canada


Pakistan and Canada established diplomatic relations in 1947. Both countries have resident Missions in each other’s capitals. The ties between the two countries are based on strong foundation of friendship and cooperation. In the early years of establishment of relationship, Canada contributed significantly to the economic development of Pakistan.

2.  Pakistan’s exports to Canada valued over US$ 284.7 million. Canada’s exports to Pakistan were around US$ 489.3 million.

3.  There are separate Pakistan-Canada Friendship Groups in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan. Similarly, the Parliament of Canada has a Canada-Pakistan Parliamentary Friendship Group.

4.  A strong Pakistani community of around 400,000 is living in Canada and contributing to the economic and social life of the diverse Canadian society. Many Canadians of Pakistani origin are also participating in the political activities.  

5.  A large number of Pakistani students (around 4000) are also studying in Canada. The Canadian Government has included Pakistan in the Student Direct Stream program (SDS) through which Pakistani students can get the Canadian study visa on fast track basis. SDS offers immense opportunities for the aspiring students to get enrollment in the Canadian educational institutions with better chances for immigration to Canada. 



Pakistan and China established diplomatic relations on 21 May 1951.

This relationship has built on the strength of its successive achievements, and has become formidable with each passing day and year. The leadership of both countries is committed to taking this relationship forward.

To understand the depth of this unique relationship, here is a glimpse of the milestones reached over the years:

Milestones / Key Developments:

1951The two countries establish diplomatic relations
1955Visit of Vice President Madam Song Ching Ling to Pakistan
1956Visit of Prime Minister H.S. Suhrawardy to China
1963Visit of Foreign Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to China
1963Pakistan and China concludes boundary agreement through peaceful negotiations
1964Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) starts its flights to Beijing, becoming the first non-communist country airline to fly from Beijing
1965Agreement on Cultural Cooperation signed
1970Pakistan facilitates first visit by US President Nixon to China, paving way for the first ever US-China official contact
1976Agreement on Scientific and Cultural Cooperation signed
1978The Karakoram Highway, a construction miracle, linking the mountainous Northern Pakistan with Western China officially opens
1983Pakistan and China sign MoU on Educational Exchanges
1989The two countries sign an agreement on Reciprocal Encouragement and Protection of Investments
1995Agreement for Traffic in Transit is signed between the Governments of Pakistan, China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan
1995Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto visits China as a special guest to attend the 4th Women’s Conference in Beijing
1999The contract to jointly develop and produce JF-17 was signed
2001Premier Zhu Rongji visits Pakistan on the occasion of 50 years of establishment of Diplomatic Relations
2001China and Pakistan sign agreement on Tourism Cooperation
2003Preferential Trade Agreement is signed between the two countries
2005Bilateral MoU on Cooperation in Information Technology is concluded
2005Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits Pakistan
2005“Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighborly Relations” is signed between the two countries
2006Chinese President Hu Jintao pays an official visit to Pakistan
2006China and Pakistan sign Free Trade Agreement
2008Pakistan welcomes the Chinese Olympic Torch in Islamabad
2010Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits Pakistan
2010JF-17 inducted in Pakistan Air Force
2013Premier Li Keqiang visits Pakistan in May and both sides issue a Joint Statement on Deepening Comprehensive Strategic Cooperation
2013Pakistan and China sign the landmark Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation for the Long-term Plan on China-Pakistan Economic Corridor
2013Pakistan awards a contract for construction and operation of Gwadar Port to China
2013Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz Sharif visits China and both sides agree to Common Vision for Deepening China-Pakistan Strategic Cooperative Partnership in the New Era
2013Both countries sign Memorandum of Understanding on the Cooperation of Developing China-Pakistan Economic Corridor Long-term Plan and Action
2014The governments of Pakistan and China agree on the construction of 27 km Orange Line metro train project in Punjab
2015Chinese President Xi Jinping visits Pakistan. The two sides conclude more than 50 agreements in infrastructure, energy and industrial development
2015The two countries celebrate 2015 as the Year of Friendly Exchanges 2015 – Trade between the two countries reaches US $16 billion
2015Chinese President Xi Jinping undertakes a landmark visit to Pakistan, both countries signed over 50 documents including agreement on CPEC outlining projects worth 46 USD.
2016The two countries 65th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations.
2016China-Pakistan unveils the Long-term Plan of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)
2017Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif attends the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in Beijing.
2018Prime Minister Imran Khan pays a historic visit China and both sides agree to further strengthen All-Weather Strategic Cooperative Partnership and jointly build Closer China-Pakistan Community of Shared Future in the New Era.
2018CPEC enters in its Second Phase
2018Phase-II of China-Pakistan Free Trade Agreement was signed
2018Prime Minister Imran Khan attends the First China International Import Expo (CIIE) in Shanghai.
2018Groundbreaking of Rashakai Special Economic Zone
2018Pakistan launches Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (PRSS-1) from China’s Jiuquan Satellite Centre
2019Groundbreaking of Allama Iqbal Industrial City (M3), Faisalabad Special Economic Zone
2019Prime Minister Imran Khan visits China to attend the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation
2019JWG on International Coordination and Cooperation launched
2019Visit of Chinese Vice President to Pakistan in May
2019The two sides celebrate 2019 as the year of sister-city / province
2019Pakistan hosts the Third China-Afghanistan-Pakistan Trilateral Foreign Ministers Dialogue in Islamabad
2019Visit of Prime Minister to China in October
2019CPEC Authority has been set-up to coordinate and monitor progress on CPEC Projects
2019A CPEC Cell was alsoestablished in the Prime Minister’s Office
20199th JCC took place in Islamabad in November
2020CPFTA-II became operational from 1st January
2020Extensive bilateral coordination in the wake of the Corona Virus pandemic
2020Visit of the President to China in March
2020MOUs signed including MOU to established JWGs on Science & Technology and Agricultural Cooperation

Pakistan and China enjoy close and friendly relations since the establishment of diplomatic relations in May 1951. Pakistan was one of the first countries that recognized the People’s Republic of China. Over the years, the relationship has blossomed into an “All-Weather Strategic Cooperative Partnership”. Pakistan considers China as one of its closest friend and partner and China considers Pakistan as its “Iron Brother”.

The bilateral relationship between the two neighboring countries is characterized by feelings of mutual trust, respect and goodwill towards each other. There is a regular exchange of visits at the highest level between the two countries. The strategic cooperation between Pakistan and China has grown over the past several decades.

Economically, China is Pakistan’s largest trading partner and a major investor, especially in infrastructure and energy sector. During 2018, bilateral trade between the two countries reached US$ 18 billion. With the official launch of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), the bilateral relationship has been elevated to a higher level. CPEC is a flagship project of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s initiative of “One Road and One Belt”. It aims at enhancing connectivity and improving infrastructure between Pakistan and China. Several projects are being implemented under CPEC, for enhancement of infrastructure and generation of energy. People-to-people contacts are an important aspect of the bilateral relationship. The year of 2015 was celebrated as the Year of Friendly Exchanges between Pakistan and China and several high profile events were organized including seminars, exchange of visits and cultural events to highlight people-to-people interactions.

High Level Visits:

High Level visits are the hallmark of China-Pakistan bilateral relations.

President’s Visit to China (16-17 March 2020):

At the invitation of H.E. Xi Jinping, President of the People’s Republic of China, H.E. Dr. Arif Alvi, President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, visited China from 16-17 March 2020. The President was accompanied by the Foreign Minister, Minister for Planning Development and Special Initiatives, and senior officials. During the visit, the President met with President Xi Jinping. Premier Li Keqiang and Chairman National People’s Congress, Li Zhanshu, also met President Dr. Arif Alvi.

His maiden visit to Beijing was a singular expression of Pakistan’s solidarity with its “iron brother.” The visit was undertaken at a time while China was engaged in a massive national struggle to contain the Covid-19. Leaders of the two countries took the opportunity to exchange views on bilateral, regional and international issues of mutual interest. Both leaders witnessed signing of various Agreements/MoUs during the visit. At the conclusion of the visit, a Joint statement was also issued.

Prime Minister’s Visit to China (7-9 October 2019):

Prime Minister Imran Khan visited China from 7-9 October 2019 at the invitation of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang. During the visit, the Prime Minister met with President Xi Jinping, Premier Li Keqiang and Chairman NPC Li Zhanshu. The Prime Minister was a Chief Guest at the Beijing International Horticulture Expo-2019 along-with Premier Li Keqiang. In addition, the Prime Minister also met with CEOs/Heads of leading Chinese enterprises. Both sides signed a number of MoUs/Agreements. It was Prime Minister Imran Khan’s third visit to China since assuming office in August 2018.

Chinese Vice President’s Visit to Pakistan (26-28 May 2019):

Chinese Vice President Wang Qishan visited Pakistan from 26-28 May 2019. He called on the President and held bilateral talks with the Prime Minister. During the visit, the Nishan-e-Pakistan was conferred upon the Vice President in a special investiture ceremony. Moreover, several MoUs and projects were signed and inaugurated. The Vice President also visited Lahore, where he met with Chief Minister Punjab and Governor Punjab. The Vice President also toured Pakistan’s cultural sites, including Taxila Museum, Lahore Fort and Badshahi Mosque.

Prime Minister’s Visit to China (25-28 April 2019):

The Prime Minister visited China from 25-28 April 2019 to participate in the 2nd Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation. He delivered a speech at the Opening Ceremony of BRF on 26 April and participated in the Leaders Roundtable on 27 April. During the visit, the Prime Minister held meetings with President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang in which the entire range of bilateral relationship, including implementation of Phase-II of CPEC, was discussed. Both sides reaffirmed their resolve to further strengthen the All-Weather Strategic Cooperative Partnership. Both sides also discussed important regional and international issues, including peace and reconciliation in Afghanistan and peace and stability in South Asia, and agreed to deepen cooperation at the multilateral fora. The Prime Minister attended a Pakistan Business and Investment Forum attended by leading businessmen of Pakistan and China. 14 B2B agreements were also signed. He also attended the opening ceremony of the Beijing International Horticulture Exhibition. During the visit, 7 new MoUs were signed on a range of bilateral issues, including the Second Phase of Pakistan-China FTA, Completion of Preliminary Design of ML-1, Rashakai SEZ Joint Venture, Socio-Economic Cooperation, Economic and Technical Cooperation and Cooperation in Marine Sciences.

Prime Minister’s Visit to China (2-5 November 2018):

Prime Minister Imran Khan had paid his first official visit to China on 2-5 November 2018. In Beijing, he had met with President Xi Jinping, Premier Li Keqiang, Chairman Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC), Li Zhanshu and Vice President Wang Qishan. He had also met with Minister of International Department of the CPC Central Committee, Song Tao, Chairman of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and had interactions with leading corporate leaders of China. In Shanghai, the Prime Minister had attended the opening ceremony of the 1st China International Import Expo (CIIE).

The two sides reached a number of important understandings and long-term consensus, reiterated strong commitment to bilateral relations and the leaders developed good rapport for future cooperation. During the visit, two sides had signed fifteen (15) agreements/MoUs on a range of bilateral issues, including transfer of sentenced persons, poverty reduction, agriculture, socio-economic development, and cooperation in combating illicit traffic in drugs.

Other Visits:

Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif paid an official visit to Zhengzhou from 14-15 December 2015, to participate in the SCO Summit. During the visit, he met with Premier Li Keqiang. President Mamnoon Hussain visited Wuzhen from 16-18 December 2015, to participate in the 2nd World Internet Conference. During the visit he met with President Xi Jinping on 16 December.

On the invitation of Chinese leadership, President Mamnoon Hussain paid an official visit to China from 1-4 September, 2015, to participate in the commemoration ceremony of the 70th Anniversary of China’s victory in World War II. During the visit, delegation level talks were held with President Xi Jinping and Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli.

Chinese President Xi Jinping paid a historic State visit to Pakistan from 20-21 April 2015. During the visit, it was agreed to intensify cooperation under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. China pledged to invest US$46 billion in Pakistan’s energy and infrastructure sectors in Pakistan. President Xi was also awarded Pakistan’s highest civil award of ‘Nishan-e- Pakistan’ during the visit.

On the invitation of Chinese President Xi Jinping, Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif paid an official visit to Beijing from 7-8 November 2014 to participate in the “Dialogue on Strengthening Connectivity Partnership” during the 22nd APEC Summit. Prime Minister Sharif endorsed President Xi’s vision on regional connectivity and infrastructure development, stressing that Asia would need to strengthen both to excel in international arena.

President Mamnoon Hussain visited Shanghai from 19-22 May 2014, to attend the 4th Summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA). Pakistan’s participation in the CICA Summit at the highest political level sealed its endorsement of the vision of Asian collective security based on cooperation and dialogue.

President Mamnoon Hussain paid an official visit to China from 18-21 February 2014. The second Joint Coordination Committee (JCC) meeting on Economic Corridor Project (ECP) was held on the sidelines of the President’s visit.

Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif paid an official visit to China from 3-8 July 2013. This was Prime Minister’s first overseas visit after assuming office in June 2013. During the visit, the two sides concluded the MoU on China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

Premier Li Keqiang paid an official visit to Pakistan from 22-23 May 2013. It was the first visit of Premier Li Keqiang abroad after assuming office.

Other High Level Visits:

From Pakistan side, the other recent high-level exchanges include the meeting of Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi with State Councillor and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Wang Yi, in August 2019 and on the sidelines of the SCO Council of Foreign Ministers in May 2019. Earlier, the Foreign Minister had met with Wang Yi when he visited Beijing in March 2019 for the first session of Foreign Ministers’ Strategic Dialogue and later when he was in Beijing for the 2nd Belt and Road Forum in April 2019. The Foreign Minister also participated in Political Parties’ Dialogue between PTI and CPC and Political Parties Forum on CPEC. He also met Vice President Wang Qishan and Minister for IDCPC, Mr. Song Tao. Foreign Minister had earlier visited Beijing on 25 December 2018.

Former Foreign Secretary visited China on 8-11 April 2019 to formally launch the JWG on International Cooperation. The Foreign Secretary also met with Vice Minister Le Yucheng and Mr. Yang Jiechi, Director Foreign Affairs Commission of CPC. Bilateral ties between the two countries; Prime Minister’s visit to China for 2nd Belt and Road Forum (25-28 April 2019); current regional situation; and cooperation at multilateral fora were discussed during the visit.

The Deputy Chairman Senate, Saleem Mandviwalla, visited China from 17-19 April 2019 and held meetings with Shanghai Media Group, Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference Shanghai Committee, Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce, East China Central Factory of Bright Dairy. Previously, Chairman Senate visited China from 16-20 August 2018. Former President Mamnoon Hussain had visited China to attend the SCO Heads of State Summit in Qingdao in June 2018. Former Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi participated in the Boao Forum for Asia held on 8-11 April 2018.

From Chinese side, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi visited Pakistan in September 2019 to attend the Third China-Afghanistan-Pakistan Foreign Ministers Dialogue in Islamabad. Vice Chairman CMC Gen. Xu Qiliang visited Pakistan recently.

Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Kong Xuanyou visited Pakistan on 6 March 2019. He discussed the regional situation with the Foreign Secretary and also called on Prime Minister Imran Khan, Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi and Chief of the Army Staff. Vice Foreign Minister Kong Xuanyou had earlier visited Pakistan to attend the first round of reconstituted Political Consultations between Pakistan and China on 10 December 2018.

The other high level visits from China included those of Mr. Gao Yunlong, Vice-Chairman Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) (13-16 February, 2019); visit of Mr. Zhang Chunxian, Vice Chairman of Standing Committee of National People’s Congress (NPC) in November 2018; visit of Mr. Song Tao, Minister for International Department of Communist Party of China (CPC) on 13-16 October; State Councillor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi’s visit (6-9 September); and visit of General Zhang Youxia, Vice Chairman of Central Military Commission of China in May 2018.

Consultation Mechanisms:

Pakistan and China have several Consultations mechanisms including Strategic Dialogue at Foreign Ministers’ level, Political Consultations at Foreign Secretary/Vice-Minister level; consultations on South Asia, Arms Control, Counter-terrorism; Human Rights; Peacekeeping; Maritime Dialogue; Border management consultations, and Consular affairs.

Defence Cooperation:

Pakistan-China Defence collaboration forms the backbone of the relationship. The cooperation spans high-level military exchanges, structured defence and security talks, joint exercises, training of personnel in each other’s institutions, joint defence production and defence trade. The militaries of the two countries have institutionalized three tiers of bilateral consultations to enable close cooperation at all levels. There is an extensive range of cooperation, including joint ventures, for the production of military equipment, aircraft, submarines and tanks. China is also the recipient of the largest number of military training officials from Pakistan.

Economic & Trade Relations:

China is currently Pakistan’s largest single trading partner; while Pakistan is China’s second largest trading partner in South Asia. Major imports from China include machinery and mechanical appliances, metals, chemical products, mineral ores, plastic scrap and transport equipment. Main exports include cotton yarn, cotton fabric, rice, leather and fish products.

In recent years, the bilateral trade volume between China and Pakistan has increased rapidly with stable commodity structure. However, despite robust investment from China, bilateral trade remains anemic. China’s imports from Pakistan reflect a downward trend whereas China’s exports to Pakistan are on an upward trajectory. Bilateral trade, which stood at US$ 1.3 billion in 2002, reached US$ 19.08 billion in 2018. Imports from China stood at US$ 12.7 billion and exports from Pakistan to China at US$ 1.85 billion in 2019.

To enhance bilateral trade volume, the two countries signed the 2nd Phase of China Pakistan Free Trade Agreement (CPFTA) during the Prime Minister’s visit in April 2019. CPFTA-II became operational from 1st January 2020. It would ensure provision of level-playing field in terms of concessions vis-à-vis other competitors; robust safeguard measures for protection of domestic industry; improved tariff reduction modality; higher liberalized import value from China and lesser import value for Pakistan and attracting FDI into SEZs.


According to the State Bank of Pakistan Annual Report 2018, during FY 2018, China was the biggest investor in Pakistan with an investment of US$ 1.591 billion out of a total of US$ 2.537 billion which amounts to 63% of total FDI. With the initiation of CPEC, there has been an upsurge in investment flows into Pakistan especially in infrastructure and energy sectors.

China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC):

Pakistan and China have constituted a Joint Cooperation Committee (JCC) to implement CPEC. The JCC is co-chaired by Pakistan’s Federal Minister for Planning, Development and Reform and Vice-Chairman of China’s National Development and Reform Commission. It is supported by 8 Joint Working Groups covering the various areas of cooperation as including: (i) Energy, (ii) Transport Infrastructure, (iii) Gwadar, (iv) industrial cooperation, (v) Planning & Finance, (vi) Security, (vii) Socio-Economic Development, and (viii) International Cooperation. Two new JWGs have been added. The ninth and tenth JWGs on Science & Technology and Agriculture have been established in March 2020 during the visit of the President to China.

Nine JCC meetings have been held to date, with the last one taking place on 5 November, 2019 in Islamabad. Next meeting of the JCC is scheduled to be held in China in 2020.

Current Status of CPEC Projects:

The detailed progress of CPEC Projects may be seen at The highlights achievements are as follows;

Energy Cooperation:

  • As of September 2019, 12 power projects have either been completed or were under construction. The total installed capacity of these projects was 7,240 MW with total investment of about 12.4 US billion dollars. In addition, 9 projects stand at early stage (some are constructed by phases, with a total installed capacity of 6390 MW).
  • As of fiscal year 2018-19, COD CPEC energy projects had generated $250 million in tax revenue for Pakistan and provided over 10,000 jobs. They now accounted for 14.5% of available energy in the NTDC grid.
  • The JCC welcomed significant positive momentum in resolving the issue of delayed tariff payments and agreed to promote the introduction of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) technology in Pakistan.
  • It was also agreed to continue consultations and finalize the Pakistan-China Development Plan for oil and gas sector. Pakistan side proposed these projects for consideration by the Chinese side, i.e. (a) Finalization of feasibility study on South North Gas Pipeline; (b) Up-gradation of Pakistan Refinery Ltd. Karachi; (c) Coal-to-Liquid Engineering Plant based in Thar Coal at Thar Sindh, and (d) Thar Block-VI for Coal gasification to Fertilizer projects.

Transportation and Infrastructure Cooperation:

  • The 392 kilometer-long Multan-Sukkur section of the Peshawar-Karachi Motorway was completed ahead of schedule and inaugurated at the JCC.
  • Work on upgrading the Karakoram Highway’s Havelian-Thakot section was also on track for timely completion. Its Havelian-Mansehra section would be opened to traffic in the near term.
  • In Gwadar, work on the redesigned Eastbay Expressway and the New Gwadar International Airport was proceeding according to timelines.
  • Various issues regarding Orange Line Mass Transit project in Lahore had been resolved (the project is to be operational from March 2020).
  • Both sides agreed to expedite the design review and feasibility approval of the Main Line (ML)-I Peshawar-Karachi railway project and agreed to constitute financing committees. Possibility of RMB financing would also be explored.
  • It was agreed that Pakistan would submit financing request for Karachi Circular Railway (KCR) for further deliberation. Both sides also agreed to consider Quetta Mass-transit and greater Peshawar Mass-transit project in the next JWG Meeting after approval of their PC-1s.


  • Gwadar was considered as an entry point for transshipment to Afghanistan.
  • Gwadar Smart Port City Master Plan was endorsed by JCC.
  • The 300 MW coal-fired power plant was launched, and its preparatory work would be expedited.
  • China would dispatch expert’s teams for the early implementation of a 1.2 million gallons per day (MGD) desalination plant.
  • Detailed planning was being undertaken for the further development of Gwadar’s Free Zone which had already been granted considerable concessions.
  • A medical college and nursing school would be considered for Phase I of the Gwadar Development Authority (GDA) hospital project.

Industrial Cooperation:

  • The JCC reviewed progress on three SEZ’s namely Rashakai, Dhabeji, and Allama Iqbal. The importance for supporting infrastructure, targeted incentives for investors and a “one-window” facility was reaffirmed.
  • The first round of business diagnosis for Pakistani’s textiles sector was undertaken and its findings on enhancing industrial productivity and overall competitiveness were presented. It was agreed to expand and deepen the business-diagnosis mechanism to other industrial subsectors.
  • It was agreed to activate the Pakistan-China Business Council to give full play to the private sectors of both countries. The Council would comprise senior executives from leading enterprises.
  • The JCC agreed to support revitalization of Pakistan Steel Mills (PSM)
  • A comprehensive incentives package for investors was in the final stages of preparation by Pakistan and would be unveiled at the earliest.

Socioeconomic Development and Agriculture:

  • Out of 17 fast-track socioeconomic development projects, 12 were ready for commencement, while the remaining five projects would also be expedited.
  • Special emphasis was placed on early launch of Pakistan-China joint agricultural technology laboratory.
  • Both sides would also enhance cooperation in agricultural areas including deep processing technology, fisheries, and disease-free zones.
  • Both sides also agreed to accelerate the procedures for: (a) Balochistan Solar Power Lighting Equipment; (b) Drinking Water Equipment Supply (Solar powered pumps in KP and Water filtration plants in AJK); (c) Smart Classroom Project for Higher Education; (d) Provision of Medical Equipment and Material and (e) Pakistan Vocational School’s Equipment Up-grading and Renovation Project.

Pakistan enjoys friendly relations with Croatia and close cooperation at various international fora. Pakistan was among the first few countries to recognize the independence of Croatia.  Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established in 1994.  Pakistan’s Embassy in Zagreb (Croatia) was also accredited to Bosnia and Herzegovina during the 1992-1995 Bosnian war. The Embassy was shifted from Zagreb to Sarajevo (Bosnia & Herzegovina) in 1998.  The Croatian authorities shifted their Embassy from Islamabad to Tehran. This arrangement continues till today.
  1. Croatia in an important country in the Balkans region. It joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.

Political Relations

  1. The leadership of both the countries is keen to further deepen the bilateral ties, which is manifested by contacts on the sidelines of international conferences/events between the two sides. The last high- level visit from Pakistan side took place when former Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Makhdoom Khusro Bakhtiar visited Croatia in May 2007.

Institutional Mechanism and Legal Framework

  1. Pakistan and Croatia signed a MoU on Bilateral Consultations between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the Republic of Croatia on 01 June 2007 in Zagreb, Croatia. The inaugural session will be held on mutually convenient dates.
Economic Cooperation
  1. Pakistan and Croatia signed a Business Cooperation Agreement between the FPCCI and the Croatian Chamber of Economy in 1996. The trade figures for the last five years are given below:
Value in million US$

Year Exports to Croatia Imports from Croatia Total
2013-2014 7.592 0.164 7.756
2014-2015 9.306 0.716 10.022
2015-2016 9.582 0.683 10.265
2016-2017 11.573 2.892 14.465
2017-2018 14.118 1.647 15.765
2018 11.67 5.0 16.67
Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics  

Defence Cooperation
  1. Pakistan has limited Defence cooperation with Croatia. No high level defence related visit has taken place in the recent past. Croatia has a very strong Navy in the region. Pakistan can explore possibilities of naval cooperation with Croatia. In this regard a high level naval visit from Pakistan can be beneficial.
Cooperation on Candidatures

  1. Pakistan and Croatia supports each other’s candidature on mutual arrangements, which is often done through the Offices of the Permanent Representatives.
  1. There is a very small Pakistani community in Croatia around ten to fifteen Pakistanis. Most of them are married to Croatian women and have acquired Croatian nationality. Some of them have their own small business set ups.


  1. Both Pakistan and Cyprus do not maintain resident diplomatic missions in each other’s capital. Pakistan’s High Commissioner to Cyprus is resident in Beirut while Cyprus’ High Commissioner to Pakistan is resident in Tehran.
  1. Pakistan and Cyprus maintain cordial relations. Cyprus donated US$ 127,000 to the Prime Minister’s Flood Relief Fund for the relief and rehabilitation of the October 2010 flood affectees in Pakistan.
High Level Bilateral Interactions and Exchanges
  1. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto visited Larnaca in October 1993 to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.The Cypriot Foreign Minister met Foreign Minister HinaRabbaniKhar during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in October 2011 in Perth, Australia. Finance Minister Shaukat F.A. Tareen visited Cyprus in September 2009 to attend meeting of the Finance Ministers/Senior Officials of the Commonwealth.
Mutual Support to Candidatures:  

  1. Pakistan and Cyprus have been supporting each other’s candidature at various international organizations. During recent past, Pakistan supported Cypriot candidature in International Maritime Organization (IMO), which has been very well recognized and appreciated by the Cypriot side.
Economic Relations:  

  1. Over the recent years, Pakistan-Cyprus bilateral trade has been fluctuating around US$15 million mark. Lately, the Balance of Trade has also been in our favour. Bilateral trade figures for the past several years are given below:
Years Pak Exports Pak Imports Two-Way Trade Balance of Trade
2003-04 7.004 1.09 8.023 5.985
2004-05 6.857 2.734 9.591 4.123
2005-06 6.593 21.984 28.577 (15.123)
2006-07 6.406 8.480 14.886 (2.074)
2007-08 9.908 5.033 14.941 4.875
2008-09 8.886 13.590 22.476 (4.704)
2009-10 7.268 10.614 17.882 (3.346)
2010-11 6.442 55.220 61.662 (48.778)
2011-12 8.499 5.940 14.439 2.559
2012-13 7.247 6.163 13.410 1.084
2013-14 11.621 3.144 14.765 8.477
2014-15 9.843 2.263 16.106 3.580
2015-16 8.643 7.790 16.433 0.853
2016-17 11.027 5.380 17.244 4.810
2017-18 5.484 5.380 10.864 0.104
  1. Pakistan’s major exports to Cyprus are textiles, textile made ups (bed, table and kitchen linen), leather, carpets, rice, and fruits & nuts. Our major imports from Cyprus include pharmaceutical products, mineral substances, copper & its articles, and aluminium.
  1. With Cyprus’ entry into the EU, Pakistan’s commercial interests have assumed significance. Cyprus has been supporting EU’s decision to help Pakistan through granting greater market access to the country such as Autonomous Trade Preferences (APTs) package to overcome economic difficulties in the aftermath of devastating floods in 2010 and GSP Plus in 2014.
Community Welfare and Consular Matters:  

  1. At present, the size of Pakistani community in Cyprus is around 3500-4000, mostly students.
Pakistan-Czech Relations

Diplomatic Relations between Pakistan and former Czechoslovakia were established in 1950. Since then, bilateral relations have remained cordial and cooperative. In 1993, former Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved into two free and independent States, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and EU in 2004.

Political Relations

  1. The Prime Minister of former Czechoslovakia Marian Calfa visited Pakistan in December 1991. Czech Prime Minister Mirek Topolanek paid an official visit to Pakistan from 08-10 May 2007.
  1. Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Mirek Topolanek, paid an official visit to Pakistan from 08-10 May 2007 at the invitation of former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. Four MoUs including Establishment of Bilateral Cooperation between Health Institutions of the Czech Republic and Pakistan; Cooperation between the Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FPCCI) and the Economic Chamber of the Czech Republic; Cooperation between Academy of Sciences of Pakistan and the Czech Republic; Cooperation between the Foreign Service Academy of Pakistan and the Czech Diplomatic Academy were signed during the visit.
  1. The former Czech Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Martin Bartak, who was also Minister of Defence, visited Pakistan in March 2010. An MOU on Military Cooperation was signed between the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic and the Ministry of Defence of Pakistan. The Terms of Reference (TOR) of this MOU were signed on 23 November 2016 in Karachi.
  1. The former Prime Minister of Pakistan met with the Czech Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Pavel Belobradek, on the sidelines of Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague on 25 March 2014.
  1. A three member delegation of Czech-Pakistan Inter-Parliamentary Friendship Group visited Pakistan from 23 -29 June 2019. The delegation visited Islamabad and Lahore and held meetings with Speaker National Assembly; Chairman Senate and Advisor on Commerce; Textile, Industry & Production and Investment. The delegation was also accompanied by five member business delegation from RMT (electronics manufacturing company), LIAZ (trucks manufacturing) and Wero energy (Energy company).
Annual Bilateral Consultations between Foreign Ministries

  1. The mechanism has been established since 2006. Eight rounds of Bilateral Political Consultations have been held so far. The 8thround was held in Islamabad from 13-14 March 2018. The Pakistan side was led by Additional Secretary (Europe) Ministry of Foreign Affairs Zaheer Janjua. During the consultations, the two sides reviewed the entire gamut of bilateral relations and explored possibilities of extending cooperation in political, economic, energy, educational and cultural sectors.

Economic and Trade Cooperation
  1. The economic relations between the two countries are growing steadily. The total volume of trade between the two countries has reached US$ 245 million in 2018.
Educational Cooperation
  1. Pakistan and the Czech Republic have had mutually beneficial cooperation arrangement in the field of education. Around 30-40 Pakistani students are studying in the Czech Republic in different fields. A Memorandum of Agreement between National Textile University and Technical University Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, was signed in 2008, which encouraged the exchange of students and faculty members between the two universities. At present, 20 Pakistani students are completing their doctorate studies in Textile University of Liberec at the Faculty of Textile Engineering.
Cooperation in Culture
  1. The two countries have cultural links embodied in history. The Czech scientists and travellers had been visiting what is now Pakistan since the middle of 19th Century. The cultural exchanges and mutual inspiration intensified especially in the 1920s and 1930s. Works of famous Czech writers have been translated in Urdu.
  1. Both countries have signed Programme of Cooperation in Culture 2009-2011 on the occasion of 70th Anniversary of Pakistan’s independence.

Pakistani Community

  1. There are around 615 Pakistanis in the Czech Republic, mostly businessmen, traders, students and professionals. A few are employed by multinationals.
Pakistan-Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Relations

Pakistan formally recognized DPRK and established diplomatic relations on 9 November 1972. In 1976, then Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s state visit to North Korea gave a further boost to the bilateral relations.

Pakistan welcomes the efforts for a negotiated resolution to all outstanding issues on the Korean peninsula. It has been Pakistan’s consistent position that all relevant parties should comply with their international obligations, pursue the path of dialogue and diplomacy to reduce tensions and work towards achieving a comprehensive solution.
Pakistan-Denmark bilateral relations

  Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Denmark were established soon after Pakistan achieved independence. Pakistan opened its Ambassador-level resident Mission in Copenhagen in November 1976. Denmark upgraded its Mission in Islamabad to Ambassador-level in September 2004.  

Political Relations

  2. The former Adviser to Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs Mr. Sartaj Aziz met his Danish Foreign Minister Kristen Jensen on the side-lines of Brussels Conference on Afghanistan on 5th October 2016. The Minsters discussed peace process in Afghanistan, regional security with respect to relations between India and Pakistan, Danish investment in wind power projects, Pakistan’s case for Nuclear Suppliers Group membership. The Adviser also invited Danish Foreign Minister to visit Pakistan.

3. The former Adviser to Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs met with Danish Foreign Minister Kristen Jensen on the side-lines of 11th ASEM Summit in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on 16 July 2016. The discussion covered bilateral trade and investment, Afghanistan and Pakistan’s membership of NSG.

4. The former Adviser to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs Sartaj Aziz also met his Danish counterpart on the sidelines of the 12th Asia Europe Foreign Ministers’ Meeting (ASEMFM12) in Luxembourg on 5-6 November 2015. The Danish Foreign Minister acknowledged Pakistan’s sacrifices in the fight against terrorism, and noted the success achieved in recent counterterrorism operations. He also expressed support to Pakistan’s efforts for economic revival and stressed the need to further strengthen trade and investment cooperation with Pakistan. He also expressed sympathies for the victims of earthquake that struck Pakistan in October 2015.  

Bilateral Political Consultations

5.       In order to institutionalize official bilateral interaction, an MoU on Bilateral Political Consultations was signed on 2 March, 2018 and the first round held the same day in Copenhagen (Denmark). Next round will be held in Islamabad on mutually agreed dates.

Bilateral Trade and Investment
  1. The total volume of bilateral trade in fiscal year 2018 amounted to US$ 297.04 million. There are around 52 Danish companies with business interests in Pakistan. They include major companies like A.P. Møller/Maersk, F.L. Smidth, Beirholm, Eldan Recycling, Haldor Topsoe, Sanovo Technology, Borch Textile group, Wernerfelt Textile Company, Select A/S and KMC).
  1. An Agribusiness delegation focusing on food, agriculture and sustainability from Denmark visited Pakistan (Lahore and Karachi) on 13-16 January 2019. The Danish delegation comprised of companies like AAK, DS Triple, Foss, Jeros and Jimco. They held separate meetings with the representatives of Fauji Foods, BigBird, Mondelez, Dairyland besides undertaking visits to Venus Pakistan and Bunny’s Ltd.
  1. Denmark is world leader in wind-powered electricity generation. Pakistan Alternate Energy Development Board delegation visited Denmark in April 2005. In February 2015 an agreement of cooperation for establishment of four wind power projects (250 MW each) was signed between Government of Punjab and the Danish wind turbine manufacturer VESTAS. Gerard Carew Vice-President of VESTAS visited Pakistan in this regard. The company also signed an MoU with the Government of Sindh for establishment of a 100MW Wind Power project in Jhimpir wind corridor with the cost of US$ 260 million.
Defence Cooperation
  1. There exists limited defence cooperation between the two countries. The Danish authorities expressed their interest in developing linkages between the NDU and the Royal Danish Defence College.

  2. Danish Fleet observers led by Col. Kim Schmidt, Defence Attache participated in the multinational AMAN-17 Naval Exercise held in the Pakistani waters on 10-14 February 2017. It reinforced the two countries common resolve to promote peace and stability in the region, further increase cooperation to counter human trafficking, narcotic smuggling, piracy and terrorism in the region.

Pakistani Community

  1. An estimated 30,000 Pakistanis are currently settled in Denmark. This number includes holders of British, Danish and other passports. Most Pakistanis arrived here in early 1970s when foreign nationals could enter Denmark without visa as guest workers. Due to subsequent restrictions on immigration, the number of fresh arrivals from Pakistan went down and Pakistani nationals could acquire resident status in Denmark only on the basis of family unification. Majority of early immigrants came from central and northern Punjab.
Pakistan-Egypt Relations

Pakistan established its diplomatic Mission in Cairo in June 1948. The two countries enjoy close relations rooted in common bonds of religion, culture and shared perceptions on a number of international and regional issues. Egypt recognizes Pakistan as an important member of the Muslim world that occupies a significant geopolitical position in South Asia. The Egyptian people possess great affection for Pakistan and display immense warmth towards the country. The two countries are members of various organizations, and closely interact and cooperate with each other at the United Nations and other international fora. Pakistan considers Egypt as an important player in the Middle East and within the Islamic polity. The two countries enjoy sustained defense relations.
The two countries have established institutional frameworks for cooperation in the form of Joint Ministerial Commission (JMC) and Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC). The 8th session of Pakistan-Egypt BPC was held in Islamabad on 24 December 2018. The 3rd session of Pak-Egypt JMC was held in Cairo in May 2010.

Leadership-level Interaction

  From Pakistan:

  • Prime Minister Imran Khan had a bilateral meeting with the President of Egypt, Mr. Abdul Fattah Al Sisi, on the sidelines of the 74th session of the UN General Assembly on 24 September 2019.
  • Prime Minister Imran Khan held a meeting with President Abdul Fattah Al Sisi on the sidelines of the OIC Summit held in Makkah on 30 May 2019.
  • Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi also met his Egyptian counterpart on the sidelines of the OIC Foreign Ministers’ meeting held in Makkah on 29 May 2019.
  • Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi held bilateral meeting with his Egyptian counterpart, Mr. Sameh Hassan Shoukry, on the sidelines of UNGA in New York, in September 2018.

From Egypt:

  • The latest visit at the highest level from Egypt to Pakistan was of former President Mohamed Morsi in March 2013.
  • Sameh Aboul-Enein, Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt visited Pakistan from 15-16 October 2018.
  • Shawki Ibrahim Allam, Grand Mufti of Egypt visited Pakistan, to attend “International Seerat Conference on Religious Tolerance and Harmony” on 20-25 March 2018.
  • Egyptian Commander in Chief, Minister of Defence and Military Production visited Pakistan from 24-27 February, 2020 to attend the 1st Round of Pak-Egypt Defence and Security Talks.

Economic Cooperation   Economic relations between Pakistan and Egypt are steadily improving, however, the two countries can benefit from their unique geographical locations and the existing potential for increasing bilateral trade and commercial activities. The following table gives bilateral trade figures in million US dollars for the recent years:
Value in US$ Million

Year Export Import Total
2016-17 84.395 108.956 193.351
2017-18 71.627 134.267 205.894
2018-19 95.568 167.273 262.841
Source: State Bank of Pakistan
Pakistan–EU Relations


The European Union is the world’s largest trading block of 27 members, after Brexit, with a population of over 446 million. With GDP of Euro 14.13 trillion in 2018, EU is an influential player in global affairs. Furthermore, 21 of EU member states are NATO members (with the exception of Austria, Cyprus, Finland, Ireland, Malta and Sweden) and 14 are members of Financial Action Task Force (FATF). All EU states are also members of NSG.

  1. EU is among the largest trading partners of Pakistan accounting for about Euro 13,037 million of Pakistan’s total trade in 2019. After the exit of the UK from the European Union, EU Member States host around 1.5 million Pakistanis who are gainfully employed in various fields. On the EU side, Pakistan is important for its sizeable population and important location.

  2. To continue cooperation the two sides agreed to conclude a Strategic Engagement Plan (SEP) during the third round of Pakistan-EU Strategic Dialogue on 04 October 2016. The SEP was signed during the visit of the Foreign Minister to Brussels on 25 June 2019.

Parliamentary Exchanges

  1. A delegation of the European Parliament’s South Asia delegation, led by Ms. Jean Lambert, visited Pakistan from 29 October -2 November 2018 and met the Foreign Minister on 29 October 2018. The EU Parliamentary elections were held in May 2019. Post Brexit, the EU Parliament consists of 705 MEPs.

Economic Relations

  1. In July 2012, the European Parliament revised the threshold for GSP Plus Scheme from one percent to two percent, enabling Pakistan to apply for this scheme. Subsequently, the European Parliament approved with an overwhelming majority, the Single Delegation Act on the new GSP Plus Scheme on 12 December 2013 and Pakistan became the 10th country to benefit from the scheme.

  2. Since inception of the GSP Plus Scheme, compared to 2013 Pakistan’s exports to the EU have risen by 65 percent and EU’s exports have increased by 47 percent. Total trade between Pakistan and EU stood at €13.037 billion by the end of 2019. Pakistan exports to the EU for the year 2019 were €7.492 billion and imports stood at €5.545 billion.

  3. EU conducts biennial reviews for countries for which it grants special schemes. Two biennial reviews (2014-15) and (2016-17) have already been conducted for Pakistan. The third biennial review focused on the actual narrowing of gap between legislation and on-ground implementation of 27 Core Conventions.

Pakistan-EU Development Cooperation

  1. The EU provides development assistance to Pakistan under a Multi-Annual Indicative Programme (MIP) for the period 2014-20, with an allocation of €613 Million, over a period of seven years. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) regarding MIP 2014–20 was concluded between EAD and EU Delegation in Islamabad on 15 December 2015. Negotiations for the next MIP (2021-27) would begin in the second half of 2020.

EU Election Observation Missions

  1. Election Observation has been an important EU activity aiming to promote democracy, human rights and rule of law. The European Union has been sending Election Observation Missions (EOMs) to Pakistan since the last two decades. EU-EOM deployed in Pakistan in 2018 consisted of ten (10) members of the core team and 60 Long-Term Observers (LTOs). The final report on 2018 general elections recognized several positive developments, including improvement in legal framework, independence of Election Commission of Pakistan and orderly conduct of elections. The report made 30 recommendations for consideration of the Election Commission and suggested priority action on 08 recommendation.

Security Cooperation

  1. Pakistan and the EU have a mechanism of holding staff talks at Director General Joint Staff level. Third round of Pakistan-EU Staff Talks was held in Brussels on 25-26 June 2019.

  2. The fourth round is expected to be held in Pakistan in August 2020.

 Migration Issues and Pakistan-EU Readmission Agreement (EURA)

  1. The Pakistan-EU Readmission Agreement (EURA) was signed by the two sides on 26 October 2009, ratified on 16 July 2010 and entered into force on 01 October 2012.

Kashmir Issue

  1. European Parliament held a debate on the deteriorating human rights situation in IOJ&K on 17 September 2019. Ms. Tytti Tuppurainan, on behalf of HRVP Mogherini, briefed MEPs on the latest developments in IOJ&K. Several MEPs spoke along Pakistan’s stance and called upon India to halt its atrocities in IOJ&K and supported implementation of UNSC resolutions related to the Kashmir dispute.
Pakistan-Estonia Relations
Pakistan recognized Estonia in 1992 soon after its independence. Relations between Pakistan and Estonia remained friendly ever since. However, there have been no high-level interactions between the two sides.

Political Relations

  1. The MoU on the establishment of Bilateral Political Consultations between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the two countries was signed on 8 December 2004. Under the MoU three rounds of Bilateral Political Consultations have been held in Pakistan and Estonia (2005 and 2011 in Tallinn and 2007 in Islamabad). The 4th round of consultations will be held in Islamabad on mutually agreed dates.
Economic Relations

  1. The total bilateral trade in 2018 was US$ 17.62 million. Pakistan’s exports stood at US$ 14.28 million and imports were US$ 3.348 million. Pakistan’s imports from Estonia include food products and beverages, mineral fuels, wood and wood products, articles of base metals, furniture and bedding and exports include food and food products, metals, salt and textile. The trade of the last three years is as follows:
(Million US $)

Trade 2016 2017 2018
Exports from Pakistan 13.72 11.56 14.28
Imports to Pakistan 3.86 4.42 3.348
Total trade 17.58 15.988 17.62
Source: Eurostat

Pakistani Community

  1. There are approximately 245 Pakistani citizens living in Estonia including 70 students. There is an organization of Pakistani community called “Pakistan-Estonia Association”. The main objective of the association is to provide a common platform to the Pakistani community living in Estonia, work for their welfare, facilitate new comers, promote social, cultural values and soft image of Pakistan.
Pakistan-Finland Bilateral Relations

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Finland were established in 1951. The Finnish Embassy in Islamabad was opened in 1989. However, the Embassy was closed by Finland in July 2012 on account of financial considerations. Pakistan has an Honorary Consulate in Helsinki.

Political Relations

  1. Pakistan’s relations with Finland are friendly with steady growth in content and substance. The former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf visited Finland in July 2004. There were, however, some meetings between the leadership on the sidelines of the international events. The former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Raja Pervez Ashraf, and Finnish Prime Minister, Jyrki Katainen met on the sidelines of the 9th ASEM Summit in Vientiane, Laos in November 2012.
  1. An eight-member delegation of the Finnish Foreign Relations committee visited Islamabad in January 2007. The former Special Assistant to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs, Syed Tariq Fatemi met with the Finnish Prime Minister on the sidelines of the ASEM Summit in Milan in October 2014. The Finnish Prime Minister expressed his desire to visit Pakistan which was welcomed by the the SAPM. A 21-member delegation of the National Defence University visited Finland from 26 April to 01 May 2015.
Bilateral Political Consultation

  1. Both countries are regularly holding Bilateral Political Consultations. The first round of Bilateral Political Consultations was held at Helsinki on 11 April 2014. The Second Round of bilateral political consultations was held in Islamabad on 17 May 2016.

  2. The fourth Round of Pakistan-Finland Bilateral Political Consultations between Pakistan and Finland was held in Islamabad on 26 February 2019. Additional Secretary (Europe) Zaheer A. Janjua led the Pakistani delegation while Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs Anne Marjaana Sipilainen headed the Finnish side. The next round will be held in Helsinki on mutually agreed dates.

Trade and Economic Cooperation

  1. The total bilateral trade in 2019 was US$ 69 million. Pakistan’s exports to Finland were US$28 million registering a growth of 12% compared to the exports amounting to US$25 million in the same period in 2018. Pakistan’s imports from Finland stood at US$41 million registering a steep decrease of 52% compared to the imports amounting to US$85 million in 2018. Pakistan’s imports are mainly electrical and optical equipment, machinery, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; industrial goods, chemicals, machinery, agricultural products, minerals (non-ferrous metals), telecommunication apparatus. Pakistan’s major exports to Finland are bed-wear, ready-made garments, sports goods, knitwear (hosiery), cotton fabrics, apparel & clothing of leather, made-up articles of textiles (silk/synthetic), sports goods, carpets & floor covering, rice and mangoes.
  1. There are 6-7 notable Finnish companies including Nokia, SSM, Wärtsilä, Stora-Enso and Vaisala operating in Pakistan. A Finnish company Stora Enso has established a joint venture called Bulleh Shah Packaging Limited with Packages Pakistan in 2012. The joint venture employs around 950 persons and sales are forecast to be around Euros 100 million.
  1. The Finland-Pakistan Business Council was reactivated in 2014 and has already held various trade promotion events besides planning various events in the future. Finpro has hired two local consultants to assist the Finnish companies intending to do business in Pakistan.

Educational/ Cultural cooperation

  1. A collaboration agreement was signed between the Aalto University, Helsinki and the Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design Lahore in 2011. The collaboration paves the way for Pakistani students to benefit from the Finnish expertise in the field of fashion. A delegation of NUST headed by its Rector visited Finland in April 2014 for exploring collaboration with the Finnish educational institutions during which an MoU was signed between NUST and Aalto University.

  2. The Finnish Museum Association has an ongoing collaboration program with the Pakistani Museum Association. A number of visits have been exchanged between them so far. An MoU was signed between the Finnish Museum Association and COMSATS in February 2015 to support the program.

Pakistani Community

  1. There is a small Pakistani community in Finland, estimated at around 2600 persons including students. These people are engaged in various occupations. Pakistan has a dual nationality agreement with Finland since September 2015.
Pakistan – France Relations

France is an important partner of Pakistan in Europe. The two countries share cordial and multifaceted relations. Cooperation between Pakistan and France extends from trade and economic domain to counter-terrorism, culture, education, defence and close liaison at the UN and the EU.

Political Relations

  1. Four institutional mechanisms have been established between Pakistan and France to promote cooperation in political, trade, security and defence fields. These include: (i) Bilateral Political Consultations; (ii) Joint Economic Commission; (iii) Joint Security Commission; and (iv) Joint Staff Talks. So far, thirteen rounds of Bilateral Political Consultations at Foreign Secretary level, six rounds of the Joint Security Dialogue and eleven rounds of Joint Staff Talks have been held. The 13th round of Annual Bilateral Consultations was held in Islamabad on 10 July 2018.
Parliamentary Cooperation

  1. Pakistan-France Parliamentary Friendship Groups exist in the French Senate and National Assembly. Similar groups have also been formed in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan. The Friendship Groups in the French Parliament and Senate visited Pakistan in December 2017 and January 2018. President of Pakistan-France Friendship Group Senator Pascal Allizard visited Pakistan from 28-30 October 2018 to attend APA meeting in Gwadar at the invitation of Chairman Senate. Another delegation of France Senators visited Pakistan from 24-27 April 2019.

Economic Cooperation
  1. Bilateral trade between Pakistan and France in 2019 amounted to US$ 1.46 billion, with Pakistani exports reaching $ 1.02 billion and imports $ 443 million.

  1. Around 46 French companies including Total, Alcatel, Sanofi Aventis, Vinci, Carrefour, Engie, L’Oréal, Schneider and Suez are active in Pakistan. French supermarket giant Carrefour is operating outlets in Lahore, Karachi and Islamabad. L’Oreal has established a distribution/marketing office in Karachi. Alstom, French energy company (acquired by General electric) is providing turbines for energy projects in Pakistan (Sahiwal) and is aiding in up gradation of Mangla Dam. A Pakistani company Martin Dow purchased two pharmaceutical plants in France.
  1. A delegation of French companies under the auspices of MEDEF (Association of French Entrepreneurs) visited Pakistan from 8-11 April The delegation earlier visited Pakistan in 2017, after which Credit Agricole, one of the largest banks in France, upgraded ‘Risk Model’ for Pakistan by two notches. A major financing loan for LNG Floating Terminal in Karachi was approved in principle. Its subsidiary Credit Agricole Grameen also announced plans to undertake micro-financing projects for SMEs in partnership with Pakistani entities. Suez, a world leader in water and waste management, negotiated an agreement with Sindh government for improving water supply in Karachi.
  1. Pakistan participates in several international trade exhibitions held every year in Paris. In 2016, several Pakistani companies participated in Tex World (textile trade fair); Premier Vision (leather and textile trade fair); SPACE (agriculture trade fair); SIAL (food trade fair); and Expo Protection Exhibition (safety instruments trade fair). A group of French businessmen visited Pakistan in April 2016 for TEXPO Karachi. In 2017, Pakistan participated in two Tex World fairs and French companies attended Expo 2017 in Karachi.

Development Cooperation
  1. French Development Agency (AFD) has allocated more than Euros 900 million soft loans to Pakistan since 2007. In 2017-2018 AFD approved three new loans for a total of Euros 290 million for Bus Rapid Transit of Peshawar, clean drinking water supply in Faisalabad and solar energy projects in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
  1. For 2019-2020, AFD plans to commit additional Euro 300 million to finance BRT Karachi with ADB and AIIB, rehabilitation of Lahore Fort, treatment of waste management in Lahore and access to basic services in Gilgit-Baltistan.

Defence and Security Cooperation

  1. Pakistan has a long tradition of defence relations with France. The induction of French Mirage fighter jets into Pakistan Air Force in 1960s laid the foundations of this relationship. Later, the acquisition of French submarines and maritime aircraft in 1970s and 1990s further reinforced ties. France also contributed extensively in training of Pakistan Air Force and Navy.

  2. Defense relations between Pakistan and France have been institutionalized through Joint Security Commission and Staff Talks. A draft MoU on cooperation between National Defence University, Islamabad and its French counterpart IHDEN was signed in July 2019.

Education, Culture and Research

  1. Since 2010, Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) has an ongoing scholarship program to enable Pakistani students to pursue higher studies in France. Presently, there are more than 600 Pakistani scholars pursuing Ph.D. and Masters programmes in various French institutions under this program.
  1. HEC and Campus France signed an MoU to promote cooperation between Pakistani and French Universities in 2016. A partnership agreement was signed between UNESCO and the International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS) as its category II partner on 21 November 2016. A Memorandum of Understanding between Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) and Meteo France (MF) for cooperation in the field of meteorology was signed at Paris in July 2017.

  2. “Pakistan Week,” a joint initiative of Higher Education of Pakistan (HEC) and its French counterpart Campus France, was launched in Paris on 20 June 2018. This was the third event of its kind, which aimed at deepening cooperation in higher education between Pakistan and France.
Pakistani Community

  1. There are approximately one hundred thousand Pakistanis living in France. A significant number of our community is engaged in businesses ranging from restaurants, construction, small businesses and as low-skilled labor. Pakistani Diaspora in France enjoys positive image and contributes meaningfully to the French society, in comparison with other migrant communities, it does not have any significant political influence in France.
Pakistan Germany Relations

  Pakistan Germany bilateral relations are governed by the Strategic Dialogue – signed and launched by the Foreign Ministers of the two countries in September 2012 in Berlin. Four rounds of Dialogue have been held so far. The fourth round of the Strategic Dialogue was held in Islamabad on 31 October 2018. The entire spectrum of bilateral relations came under review, including economic cooperation, defence, trade, investment, culture, education, security and strategic stability. The two sides also reviewed the regional situation. A draft Road Map for enhancing the bilateral relations was presented to the German side.

Political Relations

  1. The Prime Minister and German Chancellor held an informal meeting on the sidelines of World Economic Forum (WEF) Annual Meetings in Davos on 23 January 2020. The Prime Minister accepted Chancellor Merkel’s invitation to visit Germany.
  1. The Foreign Minister visited Munich to attend Munich Security Conference from 14-15 Feburary 2019. The Foreign Minister also held a meeting with the German Foreign Minister on the sidelines of the event.

  2. German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas visited Islamabad on 12 March 2019. During the visit, the German Foreign Minister met the Prime Minister, Chief of Army Staff and held tete-a-tete followed by delegation level talks with the Foreign Minister.

Economic Cooperation

  1. Pakistan and Germany trade volume was US$ 5 million in 2018. Germany is Pakistan’s 6th most important export destination. Pakistan’s principal exports to Germany are textiles, leather goods, medical instruments, Basmati rice, carpets and jewellery. German main exports to Pakistan are: electrical power machinery, packed medicaments & medicine, textile machinery, cars, medical instruments, synthetic colours and etc.

  2. Germany is the 7th largest FDI investor in Pakistan with a total investment of US $ 380.5 million approximately, as 35 German multinationals are engaged in Pakistan, like Merck, Hoechts, Bayer, BASF, Siemens, Linde, Metro and others. In Pakistan, 55 percent of the German investment is in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The second largest sector is electronics industry, followed by the transport sector and textiles machinery.
  1. The German automobile maker Volkswagen announced to set up an assembly plant in Karachi. The project envisages assembly of 28,000 units of Amarok and Transporter T-6 light commercial vehicles in Karachi. In the second phase of the Project, Volkswagen Caddy will also be produced. At its full capacity, the project is likely to generate Euro 400-450 million in sales and exports, and Euro 200 million in duties and taxes annually.
German Development Assistance

  1. Germany is Pakistan’s development partner. The cooperation has been continuing since the founding of German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) in 1961. The volume of development assistance and priority areas are identified through biannual review meetings between BMZ and Economic Affairs Division, held alternately in Berlin and Islamabad. The focus of development cooperation has largely been on KP, FATA and Punjab, though exceptions have been made. Germany is one of the few donors working in KP and FATA. The priority areas for development assistance are identified in close consultations with EAD, and based on the feedback received from the implementing agency, GIZ, German political foundations, German INGOs and civil society organizations. For the last five years, the focus has been on i) good governance; ii) renewable energy and energy efficiency; iii) basic education/vocational training; and iv) health.
  1. A new country strategy for Pakistan for the period 2016-2020 was finalized by BMZ in August 2016, in consultation with EAD. It endorses continued German engagement with Pakistan in the areas of (i) good governance, (ii) energy and (iii) sustainable economic development.

Defence Cooperation

  1. Pakistan and German defence collaboration started in 1960s. A major step in this regard was induction of German origin small arms for Pakistan Armed Forces in 1960s. In March 2012, Pakistan and Germany signed a MoU on Defence Cooperation signed by Defence Ministers.
  1. Military-to-Military Cooperation between Germany and Pakistan is purely the domain of the Ministry of Defence in the German context. Pakistan and German Armed Forces have come a long way in increasing contacts in areas such as, courses, visits, seminars and talks at various levels. These contacts can be further divided into two categories, Military Cooperation Programs (MCP) and Military Training Assistance Program (MTAP).
Cooperation in Education

  1. Germany is an attractive destination for Pakistani students. Around 5000 students are pursuing studies at various German institutions; including 382 Pakistani students who have completed their degrees in Master’s and Ph.D. due to scholarship programmes being offered by German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) with HEC.
  1. The two countries are also cooperating in the area of vocational and technical education and training (TVET) through establishment of centres of excellence and capacity building of trainers in TVET.
Pakistani Community  

  1. Over 100,000 Pakistanis live in Germany. Principal cities where majority of Pakistani community members reside are: Frankfurt, Bonn, Köln, Stuttgart, Hamburg, Berlin, Hanover and Düsseldorf.
  1. The majority is engaged in small businesses. A new generation of foreign qualified Pakistanis has started joining the German workforce in small numbers. Over 5000 Pakistani students are pursuing their studies in different educational institutions of Germany.
Brief on
Pakistan –Hellenic Republic (Greece) Bilateral Relations


Pakistan opened its Embassy in Athens, Hellenic Republic (Greece) in 1975. Greece established its resident diplomatic Mission in Islamabad in 1987. The two countries traditionally enjoy friendly and cooperative relations, based on mutual respect and similarity of perceptions on international issues of common interest.

Political Relations

  1. Former Prime Minister Shoukat Aziz visited Greece in 2007 along with a high-level delegation. A Joint Communiqué was issued after the visit which envisaged enhancing cooperation in the political, economic and cultural fields.
  1. Greece has accepted the reciprocal support arrangement with Pakistan for Pakistan’s candidature to the UNESCO Executive Board for the term 2019-23 in exchange for Greece’s candidature to the World Heritage Committee for the term 2021-2025.
Parliamentary Cooperation  

  1. In 2019, a 3 member Greece-Pakistan Parliamentary Friendship Group was formed in the new Greek Parliament after the elections. Georgios Kotronias, President of the group is from the ruling party New Democracy.
Economic Cooperation  

  1. Pakistan exports to Greece include bed linen, woven cotton fabrics, polymers of styrene, articles of apparel & clothing, oil seeds, footwear, sportswear, rice and garments. Imports from Greece are mainly scrap, maritime equipment, lifting machinery, air conditioning machines, preserved fruits and mechanical appliances etc.The volumeof bilateral trade at close of year 2018 was around Euros 86.934 million. The balance of trade has traditionally remained in favour of Pakistan. In 2018, Pakistan exports to Greece accounted for Euros 60.286 million and imports were about Euros 26.107 million. Bilateral trade figures for the past five years are as follows:
Sr. No. Year Pakistan exports to Greece (Euro) Pakistan Imports from Greece( Euro) Total Trade
1 2014 47.03 9.91 56.94
2 2015 51.88 13.34 65.21
3 2016 55.31 6.20 61.52
4 2017 57.00 20.61 77.61
5 2018 60.826 26.107 86.934
(Million in Euro) *Statistics Division of Hellenic Republic Science and Technology, Culture, Education  

  1. Pakistan Embassy participates in events like International Food Festival and organizes events like “Meet My Country” and cultural evenings on self-finances basis. In the field of education, there are frequent visits of doctors and educationistsfor participation in theinternational conferences and events organized by Pakistani institutions and vice versa.

Pakistani Community

7. Officially, the Greek authorities have communicated that there are estimated 26,210 Pakistanis in Greece. Most of the Pakistanis are employed on farms, construction sites, eateries and low-skill services. Essentially, they are economic migrants. They are generally peaceful and hard-working and struggling to earn their livelihood.

8. According to the Mission’s estimates, there are more than 50,000 Pakistani citizens in Greece. A Liaison officer from FIA is working in Pakistan Embassy to look after migration and interests of Pakistanis.
Pakistan-Hungary Relations

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Hungary were established in 1965.  Heads of Government/State level visits have never taken place. Visits at the ministerial level are infrequent. Mr. Levente Magyar, Hungarian Minister of State for Economic Diplomacy, visited Pakistan from 26-27 April 2016, the first such visit in 10 years.

Political Relations

  1. The former Adviser to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs Mr. Sartaj Aziz met Mr. Peter Szijjarto Hungarian Foreign Minister on the sidelines of the “One Belt One Road” Conference on 14-15 May 2017 in Beijing.

Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. The two sides regularly consult each other under the framework of Bilateral Political Consultations. Since the inaugural session in Budapest in March 2007, a total of five (05) sessions have been held. The fifth session was held in Islamabad in 2017. During the BPC, the two sides reviewed the entire spectrum of bilateral relations and chart the way for future cooperation.

Trade and Economic Relations
  1. The total volume of trade in 2018 was US $ 45.15 million, with Pakistan’s exports of US $ 18.95 million and imports of US $ 26.19 million.
  1. The highlight of Pakistan-Hungary economic relations is Magyar Oil Limited (MOL) Hungary’s US$ 305 million investment in Pakistan’s oil and gas sector since 1999. MOL is the largest producer of LPG, second largest producer of oil, and one of the largest producers of gas in Pakistan. MOL’s Pakistan operations are its most lucrative international operations.

Science and Technology, Culture and Education
  1. Under the Higher Education and Scientific Exchange Programme concluded on 7 December 2015 and amended on 21 February 2017, Hungary provides 200 graduates, postgraduate and doctoral scholarships to Pakistani students each year for three years.
  1. Hungary has offered to restore the Princess Bamba Paintings at the Lahore Fort by renowned Hungarian artist August Schoefft. The paintings depict historic culture of Sikh Court of 19th The expenditure incurred on the restoration of the paintings will be covered by the Hungarian side.

Pakistani Community

  1. There is a small Pakistani community in Hungary, numbering about 80-100 families. Most of them are professionals working in UN agencies, international banks, IT Sector, MOL, etc. A fair number of Pakistani students are studying in Hungarian Universities, especially on scholarships offered by the Hungarian government.
Brief on Iceland
Pakistan and Iceland have warm and friendly relations. The last visit to Pakistan by the officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iceland took place in April 1996, following a request from the Honorary Consul of Iceland in Pakistan for exploring the possibility of cooperation in the Fishing Industry. The delegation also included the representatives of the Trade Council – the Fisheries Development Fund and Fisheries Technology Forum.

Political Relations
  1. The former President Asif Zardari met the President of Iceland in January 2011 on the sidelines of World Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi.
  1. The former Foreign Minister Hina Rabbani Khar and the Minister for Foreign Affairs and External Trade of Iceland, Mr. Össur Skarphéðinsson, met on the sidelines of the 66th session of the UN General Assembly in New York in September 2011. Both the Ministers exchanged views on various facets of bilateral relations.
  1. Iceland has Honorary Consulates in Islamabad and Karachi. However, in the absence of any sizable Pakistani community in Iceland and dearth of contacts at different levels, the interaction between the two countries is not conspicuous. In the area of education a few students from Pakistan received geothermal training at United Nations University in Reykjavik in 90s.
Trade and Economic Cooperation
  1. Volume of trade with Iceland has been negligible due to lack of transport and communication links. A small amount of US $ 1.59 million was recorded in bilateral trade in 2018 with the balance of trade in favour of Pakistan.
  1. Iceland has a very modern and advanced fishing industry, which is the backbone of their economy. Pakistan, being a country with a long coastline and many rivers, can consider tapping the area of cooperation to impart fishing expertise to our professionals, which Iceland has developed.
Pakistan-Indonesia Relations

Indonesia is the largest country in South East Asia and the third largest Democracy in the world. Pakistan and Indonesia have historical relations deeply rooted in mutual respect and support at regional and global level. Pakistan attaches great importance to its relations with Indonesia.

It is supportive of Pakistan candidature for Full Dialogue Partner of ASEAN. Both are members of the UN, OIC, NAM, G-77, Conference Asia Africa and D-8. The two sides regularly exchange views on political, security and economic policy areas of mutual interest regular basis under the bilateral mechanisms of Bilateral Consultative Forum, Policy Planning Dialogue and Joint Commission Meeting. The last rounds of Policy Planning Dialogue and Bilateral Political Consultative Forum were held in July 2018 and November 2018, respectively. The two countries have signed a Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) in 2012 which became operational in 2013. The volume of bilateral trade increased exponentially after this agreement with more exports from Indonesia.
Pakistan-Iran Relations

Overview of Relations

Pakistan-Iran bilateral relations are rooted in historical linkages and based on religious, linguistic, cultural linkages and spiritual affiliation. Relations between Pakistan and Iran have by and large remained positive. Iran was the first country to recognize Pakistan after independence. After the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran, Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize the new dispensation. The two countries have supported each other at critical junctures in their history.

Bilateral Political Relations  

  1. Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Iran are undergoing a transformative phase. There is a renewed energy and growing positivity and desire to work together between the two countries. The growing warmth in our relations and desire to re-engage can be measured from the fact that Iranian Foreign Minister Dr. Javad Zarif was the first foreign dignitary to visit on 31 August 2018 after formation of new government in Pakistan. The Foreign Minister once again visited on 31 October 2018 and in May 2019. Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi also visited Iran on 24 December 2018.

  1. The Prime Minister Imran Khan made his first official visit to Iran at the invitation of Iranian President Dr. Hassan Rouhani on 21-22 April 2019. The timely and fruitful visit contributed to enhancing mutual understanding on a range of issues in political, economic and security areas. The visit helped in setting a clear policy direction for durable, mutually-beneficial relations with Iran. The key outcomes of the visit include; Signing of Declaration for Cooperation in Healthcare Sector; initiation of the process for release of a number of Pakistani prisoners; holding meetings of various bilateral mechanisms; opening of new crossing points; and call for peaceful solution of Jammu &Kashmir dispute.

  1. Iran has remained strong supporter of the Kashmir cause. It has openly voiced support for the innocent Kashmiris under brutal siege of Indian forces. The Iranian high leadership has also repeatedly given statements in support of people of Kashmir and condemned unjust Indian atrocities. Similarly, Pakistan’s support on Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and commitment towards Iran despite US’ unilateral sanctions has been greatly appreciated in Iran.

  1. Despite the excellent bilateral relations, the current trade volume between the two countries is below its full potential. Currently, the volume of trade is US $ 392.08 million with $22.86 million Pakistani exports comprising mainly of rice, meat, paper and paper board, chemicals, textiles, fruit & vegetables; major imports from Iran comprise mainly of iron ore, hide & skins, and chemical products (Pakistani imports US$ 369.23 million).

  1. Iran and Pakistan are working together at expert level to improve road and rail connectivity. This includes upgradation of 700 kilometer Quetta-Taftan highway, improvement of facilities at border crossing points, opening up of new border crossing points (Gabd-Reemdan and Mand-Pishin) and improvement of facilities available to Zaireen during their visits to Iran, Iraq and other countries.

  1. Pakistan-Iran border has been named “Border of Peace, Friendship and Love” by the leadership of both countries. There are many border management mechanisms operational between the two countries.

  1. There is a significant number of Pakistani diaspora living in Iran. Moreover, a large number of Zaireen (0.3 million) visit holy places and shrines in Iran, Iraq and Syria via Quetta Taftan border. There is also a work going on to further strengthen the bilateral relations with Iran through promotion of religious tourism by enhancing tourism to historic religious sites in Pakistan including facilitation to Zaireen.
Pakistan-Iraq Relations

Historically, Pakistan and Iraq have maintained friendly relations over the years. Pakistan adopted a principled stand during the First Gulf War in January 1991 and opposed the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Pakistan also argued against the invasion of Iraq by the U.S-led Coalition Forces in the second Gulf War (March 2003). After the overthrow of President Saddam Hussein’s government, Pakistan emphasized the need for maintaining the territorial integrity of Iraq and advocated transfer of sovereignty to the Iraqi people.

  Pakistan attaches great importance to Iraq’s sovereignty and territorial integrity and wishes to see return of stability. We share the sufferings of the Iraqi people including that of Iraqi refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The reopening of the Embassy in Baghdad in May 2010 after a gap of five years demonstrates Pakistan’s interests towards promoting its relations with Iraq.  

Iraq is an important destination for Pakistani Zaireen who visit Karbala, Najaf and other religious sites round the year.

  The two countries have established an institutional framework for cooperation in the form of Joint Ministerial Commission (JMC). The 9th session of Pak-Iraq JMC was scheduled to be held in July 2019 in Baghdad, but had to be postponed due to unavoidable circumstances.  

Leadership-level Interaction

  As a Consequence of two Gulf Wars and unstable security situation in the country, there have been few high-level exchanges between Pakistan and Iraq. Interaction has been primarily at the ministerial level only. SAPM for Overseas Pakistanis & Human Resource Development, Syed Zulfiqar Abbas Bukhari, paid a visit to Baghdad on 23 January 2019. Leader of the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq representing the United Iraqi Alliance (UIA), Shaikh Hamam Hammoudi visited Pakistan in July 2019. The delegation also held meetings with the Board of Investment and other institutions.  

The President has extended an invitation in July 2019 to his Iraqi counterpart to visit Pakistan. The Foreign Minister also extended an invitation in March 2019 to his Iraqi counterpart to visit Pakistan.

  Economic Cooperation  

Trade between the two countries did not grow significantly owing to political uncertainty in Iraq and issues relating to financial transactions. Bilateral trade figures during the last three years are given below:
Value in US$ in Millions

Year Export Import Total
2016-17 27.580 1.857 29.437
2017-18 15.324 2.903 18.227
2018-19 17.445 1.080 18.525
Source: State Bank of Pakistan
Brief on Ireland


  Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Ireland were established in 1962 but the Embassy of Pakistan was opened in Dublin in February 2001. Pakistan and Ireland have been supportive of each other in international forums. Ireland has been a useful economic partner for Pakistan with reasonable bilateral trade and significant remittance flow.  

Leadership Level Interactions & Visits  

  1. At the state level, President General Ayub Khan visited Ireland in July 1964. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto visited Dublin in June 1994. Irish Foreign Minister, Brian Cowen, leading the EU Troika delegation, visited Pakistan in February 2004. The Irish Minister of State for International Trade visited Karachi in April 2007 with a trade Mission.
  1. Mr. Sartaj Aziz, former Adviser to the PM on Foreign Affairs met the Foreign Minister of Ireland Mr. Charles Flanagen on September 22, 2016 on the side-lines of the 71st UNGA in New York.
Institutional Mechanisms and Legal Frameworks

  1. A mechanism of Bilateral Political Consultations exists between the two countries. So far three rounds of talks have been held, the last being in Dublin on 17 May 2011.

Candidatures and Cooperation in the UN and Agencies and other International Organizations
  1. Pakistan and Ireland have been supporting each other’s candidatures in elections for various international organizations. They agreed on a reciprocal arrangement for the UNSC non-permanent seat. Ireland supported Pakistan’s candidature for the term 2012-2013 whereas Pakistan committed its support for Ireland’s bid for the term 2021-2022. Ireland also supported Pakistan for its election to the UN Human Rights Council.

Cooperation at the EU
  1. Ireland supported Pakistan for its inclusion in the GSP Plus and also extended support for grant of Autonomous Trade Preferences (ATPs) for 75 selected Pakistani products’ entry into EU market.

Bilateral Trade and Investment

  1. The encouraging trend in our bilateral relations can be seen from the growing volume of trade which reached US$ 145 million in 2016. Despite the deteriorating economic situation in Ireland, Pakistan’s exports have been posting regular growth. Trade figures for the last few years are as under:-
(US Million $)

Period Pakistan’s Export Pakistan’s Import Total Trade
2013 60,505 31,801 92,303
2014 59,430 53,191 112,621
2015 61,000 54,000 115,000
2016 77,383 67,684 145,067
2017 69,864.9 40,425.62 110,290
Central Statistics Office Ireland   Humanitarian Assistance  

  1. Ireland’s response to the 8th October 2005 earthquake disaster in Pakistan was prompt, and caring. It was one of the first countries to announce an assistance of €3 million immediately after the earthquake. Later it was increased to €10 million. Ireland contributed €550,000 as emergency funding towards the relief efforts for the IDPs in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province.
  1. Irish government announced humanitarian aid of €10 million through UN’s Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) and €2 million for the flood victims in Pakistan in 2010. Ireland announced a grant of €5 million in 2013 for polio eradication initiative in the three polio prone countries i.e. Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria.
Pakistan Community  

  1. There is about 8000 Pakistanisin Ireland consisting of Medical Doctors, IT Professionals, Chartered Accountants and Businessmen. Pakistani doctors, who went to Ireland between 1970’s to 1990’s earned good will for themselves and Pakistan through their professionalism. Around 260 junior Pakistani doctors were recruited by the Health Services Executive of Ireland in 2011. The College of Physician and Surgeons of Pakistan (CPSP) has signed a MoU with Royal College of Surgeons (RCSI) for Post Graduate training of Pakistani doctors in Ireland. Almost 270 Pakistani doctors went to Ireland within 3 years.
Pakistan-Italy Relations

Italy is one of the founding members of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the European Union (EU). In recent years, its relations with Brussels have been strained mainly on austerity measures, high Public debt and immigration. Italy has the 2nd largest public debt in the EU after Greece, touching the figure of 132% of GDP.

  1. Italy has always shown strong commitment to its bilateral relationship with the US and the trans-Atlantic alliance. Italy considers sanctions against Russia by the EU as counter-productive. Its policy towards Russia is driven by strategic and economic interests.
Bilateral Relations
  1. Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Italy were established in 1948. Pakistan’s legation was set up at Rome in 1956 which was upgraded to an Embassy the following year.

  1. The two countries have maintained regular bilateral contacts. Prime Minister Imran Khan and Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte met on the sidelines of the 74th Session of the UNGA on 23 September 2019.
  1. Pakistan and Italy upgraded the Annual Bilateral Consultations to the level of Foreign Secretaries and also instituted the mechanism of triennial Ministerial Review of the bilateral consultations, under the Strategic Engagement Plan (SEP) signed during Foreign Minister’s visit to Italy in February, 2013. Four Rounds of political consultations have been held so far under the SEP. The next round of talks between the Foreign Secretary of Pakistan and the Italian Secretary General will be held this year. The First Ministerial review under the SEP was held in 2017 in Rome.

Joint Economic Commission

6. Pakistan–Italy Joint Economic Commission (JEC) was established in July 2005. Its inaugural session was held in Rome on 22-23 March 2006. After a hiatus of nearly ten years, the JEC was revived in 2016 and since then three meetings have been held in Islamabad and Rome. The 5th Round of JEC was held in Islamabad on 26-27November 2019.  

Economic Relations
  1. Italy is Pakistan’s third largest trading partner in Europe (after United Kingdom and Germany) and among the top ten globally. Exports to Italy consist mainly of textile items such as cotton yarn, cotton fabrics, knitwear, garments, bedwear, ethanol, tanned leather, marble and carpets. Major Italian imports are defence equipment, plastics and chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and machinery for textiles. Bilateral trade for the year 2018 stood at $ 1387.64 million, with exports from Pakistan worth $ 804.4 million and imports of $ 583.2 million.

  1. Italian investments in Pakistan are mostly concentrated in oil and gas exploration, textiles, pharmaceuticals and chemical sectors. Italian investment for the year 2017 stood at $ 51.40 million. Major Italian companies having presence/business interests in Pakistan include ENI (oil & gas), MAXCO (Textile, Readymade Garments), Landi Renzo (CNG Gas Kits Manufacturer), Pivato (road construction), Chiesi (Pharmaceuticals), Loris Bellini (Textile Machinery), Astaldi (Transport infrastructure, water and renewable energy, civil and industrial building) and ABB (Energy, power and automation technologies).
  1. According to the official Italian statistics, more than 130,000 Pakistanis are living in Italy.  The overwhelming majority arrived in Italy in the 1980s and 1990s, mostly through irregular channels. Italy is among the list of countries with which Pakistan has dual nationality arrangement. At present nearly 300 Pakistanis are held in Italian jails for crimes ranging from drug-trafficking to homicide.
Pakistan-Japan Relations

The relationship between Pakistan and Japan is deep rooted in Buddhist culture and can be traced back to 538 AD when today’s Pakistan was a cradle of the Gandhara civilization. Pakistan was the destination of the first inaugural trade delegation of Japan under the allied occupation in 1949.

Pakistan and Japan enjoy cordial relationship since the establishment of diplomatic relations on 28th April 1952. There have been several high level visits between the two countries. Mr. Taro Kono, former Foreign Minister of Japan, undertook his visit to Pakistan on 3-4 January, 2018. Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi visited Japan from 21st to 24th April 2019 on the invitation of his Japanese counterpart. Pakistan and Japan regularly hold sessions of Bilateral Political Consultations to overview bilateral relations. The 11th round of Bilateral Political Consultations was held in November 2018. Moreover, the mechanisms of Joint Government Business Dialogue (JGBD) and High Level Economic Policy Dialogue (HLEPD) have also been established to enhance economic and business cooperation between the two countries. The last rounds of JGBD and HLEPD were held in December 2018 and July 2019, respectively.

The mainstay of our relationship has been economic, with Japan being a key development partner, a major investor and a significant export destination for Pakistan. Pakistan and Japan have signed several MoUs/Agreements in all sectors of mutual benefits. About 86 Japanese companies have made investments in Pakistan. The number of Pakistani community in Japan is estimated at 15000. Their relief efforts in the Tsunami Earthquake of March 2011 were acknowledged and appreciated at the highest level in Japan.
Pakistan-Jordan Relations

Pakistan and Jordan historically enjoy cordial relations that are based on mutual trust and respect and characterized by a shared sense of history, culture, traditions, and values. Our relations are marked by common perception and similar position on important regional and international issues.  

The two countries stood together in times of need. Pakistan’s support to the Hashemite family during the insurgency in 1969-70, and Jordan’s support to Pakistan in the 1971 war form the bedrock on which our bilateral relations stand to this day. Both the countries have supported each other’s candidatures at different international fora specially United Nations. The imprint of these relations transcends down to the social and cultural fabric of the two societies.  

The two countries have established institutional frameworks for cooperation in the form of Joint Ministerial Commission (JMC) and Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC). Inaugural session of Pakistan-Jordan BPC was held in Islamabad on 22 November 2016. The 2nd session of the BPC is expected to be held in 2020. The 10th Session of Pak-Jordan Joint Ministerial Commission (JMC) is also scheduled to be held in 2020 in Islamabad

  Leadership-level Interaction

From Pakistan:

  • President Pervez Musharraf visited the Kingdom on 22-23 January 2007 as part of his regional tour.
  • President Asif Ali Zardari visited Jordan from 21-23 October 2011 to attend the World Economic Forum meeting at the Dead Sea.
  • Chairman Senate of Pakistan Mian Raza Rabbani accompanied by a delegation of Senators visited Jordan from 4-7 December 2017.
  • Minister for Religious Affairs and Interfaith Harmony, Noor ul Haq Qadri, visited Jordan in December 2019.
From Jordan:
  • King Abdullah II visited Pakistan on 14 October 2005.
  • King Abdullah II visited Pakistan on 22 August, 2006, to discuss Middle East issues.
  • King Abdullah II paid a visit to Pakistan on his way back from China on 1 November 2007.
  • King Abdullah II paid a two-day visit to Pakistan on 8-9 February 2018.

Economic Cooperation

Volume of trade between Pakistan and Jordan is not significant, however, with recent opening of Commercial Section in Pakistan Embassy Amman, it is expected to grow. Jordan can be used as a hub for our exports to the region. Bilateral trade figures for the last three years are as under:
Value in US $ Million
Year Exports Imports Total       Volume
2016-17 46.9 23.2 70.1
2017-18 41.3 22.2 63.5
2018-19 41.3 22.2 63.5
Source: State Bank of Pakistan   The balance of trade (BOT), which was initially in favor of Jordan, has now shifted towards Pakistan since 2006-07. Key items of import from Jordan are rock phosphate, fertilizer and iron scrap. Major articles of Pakistan’s exports to Jordan are cotton, textiles, sports goods and rice.
Pakistan-Kazakhstan Relations
Pakistan was amongst the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with Kazakhstan soon after its independence in 1991. Both countries cooperate and offer reciprocal support on multilateral forums.

High-level visits

There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.

From Pakistan

  • 2019-Foreign Minister of Pakistan met with his Kazakh counterpart on the sidelines of the SCO CFM in Bishkek on 22ndMay 2019.

  • 2017-President Mamnoon Hussain participated in the First OIC Summit on Science and Technology held in Astana, 9-12 September 2017. Mr. Sagintavey Bakytzhan Bakirovich, Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, called on him on 09 September 2017 on the margins of the Summit.

  • 2017– Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Astana on 08-10 June 2017 to attend the 17thMeeting of State Council of SCO and opening ceremony of Expo-2017.

  • 2015– Former PM Nawaz Sharif visited Astana from 25-26 August 2015. He met Prime Minister Karim Massimov and held talks with President Nursultan Nazarbayev.

  • 2011– Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani visited Nur Sultan on 6-7 September 2011 on a bilateral visit.

  • 2011– President Asif Ali Zardari visited Nur-Sultan (Former Astana) on 14-15 June 2011 to attend SCO Summit.

From Kazakhstan  

  • 2019– Kazakh Foreign Minister, Mukhtar Tileuberdi called on Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi on the margins of the 74thUNGA in New York.

  • 2017-Askar Myrzakhmetov, Deputy Prime Minister of Kazakhstan visited Pakistan to attend the 13th ECO Summit on 1st March 2017.

Trade and Economics

Kazakhstan, a country of 18.75million people (2018 estimate), has a strong agrarian base and rich in mineral resources. The GDP is US$ 156.2 billion with per capita income of US $ 7,585. Proven reserves at 30 bn barrels (3.5% of world) of oil and 1918 bn cubic meter of gas. Major Kazakh products include Uranium, Chrome, Coal, Zinc, Gold, Iron, Silver, Cooper, Lead, Bauxite and Molybdenum. Pakistan’s exports mandarins, potatoes, medicine and medical equipment, textile items, cereals, sugar confectionary and articles of leather to Kazakhstan. Pakistan’s imports from Kazakhstan consist of articles of iron, steel and machinery parts. Lack of direct air link and visa issues are major barriers to trade, tourism and people to people contacts.

Pakistan’s Trade with Kazakhstan – US $ Million

Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 80.23 5.37 85.60
2016-17 44.10 4.53 48.63
Brief on
Republic of Kosovo

  Pakistan recognized Kosovo as a sovereign and independent state on 12 December 2012. Pakistan was the 98th State to accord recognition to Kosovo as an independent state.
  1. Pakistan’s decision to recognize Kosovo is based on the principle of self-determination made in accordance with the aspirations of the people of Kosovo. Pakistan’s Ambassador in Turkey is accredited to Kosovo. Similarly, Kosovo’s Ambassador in Ankara is concurrently accredited to Islamabad.
  1. In 2009, Pakistan supported membership of Kosovo to International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. Recently, Kosovo has sought Pakistan’s support for its application for membership to the INTERPOL. Pakistan voted in favour of Kosovo’s membership application during the INTERPOL General Assembly meeting held on 20 November 2018. However, Kosovo failed to obtained the required two-thirds votes of the INTERPOL General Assembly.
  1. Pakistan recently also expressed support for Kosovo’s membership of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institution (INTOSAI). No MoUs/Agreements have been signed between the two countries so far. However, both sides are currently working on a number of drafts MoUs.
Political Relations

  1. Exchange of leadership level visits between the two countries has not taken place so far. However, Ministerial level visits have taken place. Pakistan’s Former Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Malik Amad Khan visited Kosovo as a Special Envoy of the President of Pakistan on 18 January, 2013 to formally convey Pakistan’s decision to recognize Kosovo.
  1. The Foreign Minister of Kosovo, H.E. Enver Hoxhaj undertook a visit to Pakistan on 10-11 March 2014. During this visit, he called on the President and the Adviser on National Security and Foreign Affairs. This was the first high-level visit between the two countries after Pakistan recognized Kosovo in December 2012.
  1. During the talks, both sides expressed their desire to build a long-term and broad-based relationship. Special emphasis was also laid on developing bilateral economic and commercial relations and increasing people-to-people contact.
  1. On 29 August, 2014, President Mamnoon Hussain held a bilateral meeting with his Kosovar counterpart, Ms. Atifete Jahjaga during his visit to Ankara for the oath-taking ceremony of the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. The Kosovo President expressed gratitude to Pakistan for recognizing Kosovo as an independent country and sought Pakistan’s support for obtaining the membership of the UN and OIC, for which Kosovo qualifies with a 90% Muslim population.
  1. The first Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kosovo H.E. Mr. Hashim Thaci was scheduled to visit Pakistan from 9-12 June 2015. However, the visit was postponed on request by the Kosovar side due to developments, which required his presence in the country. In the recent months, Kosovo’s leadership has expressed desire to visit Pakistan and to increase leadership level contacts.
Progress with regard to establishment of institutional linkages
  1. The inaugural session of Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC) between Pakistan and Kosovo was held on 6-7 April 2017 at Pristina which was an important stepping-stone.
  1. The deliberations covered a wide spectrum of issues pertaining to Kosovo-Pakistan bilateral relations including, inter alia, the latest political and economic developments in the respective regions; steps required for the establishment of legal and institutional frameworks between the two sides; increasing the frequency of high-level contacts, including between the respective Parliaments; strengthening bilateral economic and trade relations; as well as possible cooperation in the multilateral organizations.
Pakistan-Kuwait Relations

Pakistan and Kuwait enjoy brotherly relations. Both have stood beside each other in testing times. Kuwait appreciates Pakistan’s support against Iraqi occupation in 1991. Pakistan and Kuwait also cooperate with each other at the UN and OIC. The two countries have institutional mechanisms of Bilateral Political Consultations and Joint Ministerial Commission. Kuwait hosts about 105,000 Pakistan nationals, who have remitted around USD 725 million in the last fiscal year. Mutual cooperation between Pakistan Armed Forces and Kuwait Defence Forces (KDF) is also on the increase.

  Leadership-level Interaction

From Pakistan

  • The then Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif paid a two-day official visit to Kuwait on 6-7 March 2017.
  • The Foreign Minister, Shah Mahmood Qureshi, visited Kuwait on 18-19 May 2019 at invitation of the then Foreign Minister of Kuwait, H.E Sheikh Sabah Khaled Al Hamad Al-Sabah.

From Kuwait

  • Kuwaiti Prime Minister HH Sheikh Jabir Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah visited Pakistan on 10-11 November 2013 on the invitation of then Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
  • The Amir of Kuwait, Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmed Al Jaber Al-Sabah, paid his first State visit to Pakistan on 19-20 June 2006. This was the first visit of a Kuwaiti Amir to Pakistan in three decades.
Economic Cooperation  

Bilateral trade figures between Pakistan and Kuwait during last two years are given below:
  Value in million US$
Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 96 1,146 1,242
2018-19 110 1,207 1,317
Source: State Bank of Pakistan
Pakistan-Kyrgyz Republic Relations

Pakistan enjoys close relations with Kyrgyz Republic. Our relationship is founded on mutual trust and closer cooperation at international arena.

High-level visits:

There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.

From Pakistan

  • 2019- PM visited Bishkek to attend the SCO Heads of State Summit (June 2019). He held bilateral meetings with Kyrgyz.

  • 2019- Foreign Minister recently visited Bishkek to participated in the SCO Council of Foreign Ministers Meeting on 21-21 May, 2019. He also held sideline meeting with his Kyrgyz counterpart.

  • 2018– President of Pakistan met the President of Kyrgyz Republic in Turkey in October 2018 on the sidelines of the event commemorating the 95thanniversary of Turkey’s formation.

  • 2015- Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Kyrgyz Republic from 21-22 May 2015.

From Kyrgyz Republic

  • 2017- Jeenbekov Sooranbai, the then Prime Minister and now President of the Kyrgyz Republic visited Islamabad to participate in the 13thECO Summit held on 1 March 2017.

  • 2017-Arzybek Kozhoshev, Minister of Economy of Kyrgyz Republic visited Pakistan to participate in the 3rd Session of Joint Ministerial Commission on 11-12 January 2017

Trade and Economic

Kyrgyz Republic is a small economy of 6 million people having GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) of USD. 21.5 billion, and foreign trade recorded as USD. 5.26 billion (est.2017). Pakistan’s exports to Kyrgyzstan include pharmaceuticals, rice, fruits & vegetables, garments, sports goods, surgical equipment etc. while Pakistan imports food items like honey and read beans, leather, wood and metal scrap etc. from the Kyrgyz Republic.Major economic sectorsare agriculture, energy (hydro-electricity), mining (gold, mercury, uranium, Natural Gas), textile, and food etc.

Pakistan’s Trade with Kyrgyzstan – US $ Million

Year Exports Imports Total
2017-2018 1.20 0.00 1.21
2016-2017 1.05 00.08 1.13
Pakistan-Laos Relations

Pakistan enjoys friendly and cooperative relations with Lao PDR. The Embassy of Pakistan in Hanoi is accredited to Lao PDR.The two countries have been collaborating well at the international fora and supported each other’s candidature.

MoU on consultation and cooperation between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and Lao PDR was signed on 23rd April 2004 for strengthening bilateral relations. The two countries have signed visa abolition agreement in 2016.
Pakistan and Latin America

With resident Missions in four countries of Latin America, i.e., Mexico, Argentina, Brazil and Cuba, Pakistan’s relations with the region have traditionally been based on commonality of objectives and shared interests on several regional and international issues as well as close cooperation in the international fora, especially the United Nations.


2.              Pakistan and Brazil established diplomatic relations in 1949. Both countries have resident Missions in each other’s countries. The two countries enjoy cordial and friendly relations with a shared perception on global issues and also cooperate at international forums, inter alia, about supporting each other’s candidacies.


3.              Economically, Brazil is the powerhouse of Latin America. During 2020, Pakistan’s exports to Brazil were US$ 65.8 million while imports from Brazil were equivalent to US$ 909 million. Pakistan’s major exports to Brazil include cotton fabrics, inflatable balls, bed linen, medical and surgical instruments, leather goods, copper, rubber tyres, motorcycle accessories, polyester yarn etc while main items of Brazilian exports to Pakistan include soya bean oil, raw cotton, iron waste and machinery etc.


4.              There are separate Pakistan-Brazil Friendship Groups in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan. Pakistan and Brazil have signed agreement to grant exemption to the diplomats of the two countries from visa of respective countries.


5.              Around 650 Pakistanis are residing in Brazil. While 200 live in the five Countries of accreditation i.e. Bolivia-40, Colombia-80, Guyana 25, Suriname 25 and Venezuela 40.



6.              Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Mexico were established in 1955. Pakistan has its embassy in Mexico while the embassy of Mexico based in Tehran is accredited to Pakistan. The vigor of relationship between Pakistan and Mexico is reflected by the fact that in September 2015, the Mexican Senate held a “Week of Pakistan” to celebrate 60 years of diplomatic relations between both nations.

7.              During 2020, value of Pakistani exports to Mexico stood at US$ 66.3 million while imports from Mexico remained equal to US$ 112 million. Major exports of Pakistan to Mexico include cotton, textiles, leather goods, spices, toys, dental and sports goods etc. The import products from Mexico include machinery, articles of iron or steel, wood pulp, fibrous cellulosic material, roots and tubers, plastic articles and chemicals etc.

8.              A Parliamentary Friendship Group between Pakistan and Mexico was formally launched in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) in 2010. Pakistan also has separate Pak-Mexico Friendships Group in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan.

9.              Both countries have signed an agreement of visa abolition for diplomatic and official passport holders. There are 300 Pakistani families in Mexico.



10.            Pakistan and Argentina established diplomatic relations in 1951. Both countries have resident Missions in each other’s capitals. The two countries enjoy friendly and cordial relations characterized by cooperation at international fora, shared perceptions and understanding on most major global and regional issues.


11.            During 2020, Pakistan’s exports to Argentina remained US$ 31.5 million while Argentina’s exports to Pakistan valued at US$ 107.8 million. Pakistan traditionally exports textile products, surgical instruments, sports goods and leather products to Argentina while soybean oil/seed has been a major export by Argentina to Pakistan in addition to compressed natural gas equipment, pharmaceuticals and raw cotton.


12.            Pakistan and Argentina held 4th round of Bilateral Political Consultations on 22nd October 2020 via video conference. During the Consultations, a wide range of bilateral, regional and multilateral matters of mutual interest were discussed. 2021 marks the 70 years of establishment of diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Argentina. Both countries are in contact to celebrate the seven decades of friendship in a befitting manner.


13.            Pakistan-Argentina Friendship Groups in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan have also been constituted. Both countries have signed an agreement for exemption of visa to diplomats and officials of the two countries.


14.            Pakistani Community in Argentina consists of 10-15 families.



15.            Pakistan and Cuba established diplomatic relations in 1955. Pakistan has its embassy in Havana. Likewise, Cuba has a resident Mission in Islamabad. The relationship between two countries is marked with active dialogue between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, support to candidatures in multilateral organizations and cooperation in the social and cultural fields. Pakistan and Cuba have historically been coordinating closely at the UN, NAM and G-77. 

16.            Pakistan appreciates Cuba’s generous and unprecedented relief assistance during and after the October 2005 earthquake. As a token of goodwill towards the people of Cuba, Pakistan gifted 15,000 Metric Tons of rice to the people of Cuba. Pakistan conferred its highest civil award, Nishan-i-Pakistan on late Dr. Fidel Castro Ruz on 23rd March, 2018 in recognition of his outstanding contribution in strengthening fraternal relations between Pakistan and Cuba.

 17.            There are separate Pakistan-Cuba Friendship Groups in the Senate and National Assembly of Pakistan. Agreement on visa abolition for diplomatic and official passport holders of Pakistan and Cuba was signed in October 2019 during visit of the Cuban Vice President to Pakistan.

Brief on
Pakistan-Latvia Relations

Pakistan recognized Latvia on 10 September 1991 and established diplomatic relations on 26 April 1996. The two countries have since maintained friendly and cooperative relations.

  1. Five rounds of Bilateral Political Consultations have been held between the two countries. The 4th round was held in Islamabad in December 2016 and the 5th in Riga in May 2019.

  2. The Foreign Minister of Latvia paid a visit to Islamabad in December 2015 to attend the 5th Ministerial Conference of Heart of Asia-Istanbul process.

  3. Bilateral trade between the two countries in 2017 was US$ 23.44 million with exports from Pakistan amounting to US$5.54 million.

  4. As per the recent figures there are 168 Pakistani nationals residing in Latvia including 75 students.
Pakistan-Lebanon Relations

Pakistan and Lebanon enjoy cordial and friendly relations. These ties of friendship are characterized by commonality of views on many important regional and global issues such as Palestine, counter-terrorism, return of refugees, inter-faith harmony etc.  

Following the tragic death of the former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri, in a bomb explosion on 14 February 2005 in Beirut, Pakistan announced national day of mourning on 15 February.  Later both the President and the Prime Minister visited Lebanon (separately) to condole with the bereaved family as well as the Government of Lebanon.  

During the July 2006 Lebanon-Israel War, Pakistan condemned Israel’s indiscriminate bombardment of Lebanon and termed it a flagrant violation of the Lebanese sovereignty, and principles of the UN charter. On 20 July 2006, our Senate Foreign Relations Committee passed a resolution on Lebanon, in which it condemned the Israeli aggression as a violation of all civilized norms and international law. Pakistan donated seven C-130 plane-loads of humanitarian assistance for the victims of the war. Our relief assistance consisted of 27 metric tons of food items, 24 metric tons of medicines, 310 tents and 2100 blankets.  

In the aftermath of the devastating October-2005-earthquake in Pakistan, the Lebanese Government dispatched relief goods worth US$ 100,000/- by a Special Middle East Airline flight. Again 23 tons-relief goods (tents, bedcovers, milk powder, candles, vegetable oil and cooking utensils etc.) were sent to Karachi on 03 September 2010, for the flood victims in Pakistan.  

The two countries have established an institutional framework for cooperation in the form of Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC). The inaugural session of Pak-Lebanon BPC was held in Beirut in November 2018.  

Leadership-level Interaction

High level visits between the two countries have not been frequent in recent years. However, Prime Minister Imran Khan met Prime Minister Saad Hariri in Abu Dhabi on 10 February 2019, on the sidelines of World Government Summit. Expressing satisfaction over the cordial relations between the two countries, the two leaders agreed to further enhance high-level exchanges between Pakistan and Lebanon.

Economic Cooperation  

Bilateral trade figures between Pakistan and Lebanon during last two years are given below:
Value in thousand US$
Year Export Import Total
2017-18 18,329 2,657 8,029
2018-19 24,440 6,201 13,978
Source: State Bank of Pakistan
Pakistan – Lithuania Relations
Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Lithuania were established on 31 May 1994. Pakistan recognized Lithuania on 08 September 1991. Pakistan’s Mission in Minsk is concurrently accredited to Lithuania, while Lithuanian Ambassador in Ankara is concurrently accredited to Pakistan. Lithuania has an Honorary Consulate General in Islamabad since early 1990s. Pakistan appointed a Lithuanian businessman Mr. Igoris Kupastas as Pakistan’s honorary consul general in Lithuania, the Honourary Consulate was inaugurated in March 2016.

Political Relations

  1. There have been no high level visits between the two countries. The last highest level interaction was seven years ago on the sidelines of the Davos Summit on 30 January 2009, when Prime Minister Syed Yusaf Raza Gillani met the former President of Lithuania, Mr. Valdas Adamkus. The only ministerial level visit from Lithuania, has been the visit of Lithuania’s Minister for Economy to Pakistan on 26-28 September 1999, while from our side, Former Minister for Human Rights, Mr. Kamran Micheal attended the first ASEM Conference ‘Women’s Economic Empowerment: Creating Equal Opportunities in the World of Work’ in Vilnius on 25-26 May 2017.

  2. A four member Pakistan Senate delegation led by Senator Dr. Mehar Taj Roghani, participated in the “Women Political Leaders (WPL) Summit 2018”, held in Vilnius on June 6-8, 2018.

Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. The 6th round of Bilateral Political Consultations was held in Islamabad on 23 October 2018. The Pakistan side was led by Ambassador Zaheer A. Janjua, Additional Secretary (Europe), while Ambassador Eduardas Borisovas, Director for Latin America, Africa, Asia and Pacific Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, headed the Lithuanian side. Both sides reviewed the progress made on the decisions made during the 5th round of Bilateral Consultations, and agreed to enhance and strengthen their relations and bilateral cooperation in various areas.

Bilateral Trade

  1. Bilateral trade between Pakistan and Lithuania is not substantive, however the balance of trade has remained in Pakistan’s favour. In 2018 the total bilateral trade stood at US $ 47.019 million with Pakistan’s exports at US $ 41.496 million and imports at US $ 5.523million.

  2. Pakistan’s main exports to Lithuania are rice, cotton fabrics, textile, medical and pharmaceutical products, and synthetic fabrics. Our imports include fertilizer, machinery and old clothing.

Cooperation in Education

  1. In a follow-up of the 5th Session of Bilateral Political Consultations, the Ministry of Federal Education & Professional Training, as well as the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has shown willingness of the following Universities of Pakistan to collaborate with Lithuanian Universities:
  • National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore.
  • University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  • NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi
  • National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
  • Government College Women University, Faisalabad

  1. The details have been forwarded to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania, with a request to share the information with the concerned educational institutions in Lithuania, for the possibility of signing MOUs between the institutions of the two countries.

Pakistani Community

  1. There are around 150 Pakistanis living in Lithuania. This includes 15-20 Pakistani students who are studying at the Kaunas University of Medicine in the city of Kaunas.
Pakistan–Luxembourg Relations


The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a small but important European country, landlocked by Belgium, France and Germany. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, OSCE, OECD, NSG, Council of Europe and Schengen Agreement. It is a prominent financial centre.  Despite its small landmass and small population, it is the fifth-wealthiest country in the world when measured on a GDP per capita (PPP) basis.
  1. Pakistan and Luxemburg have been cooperating at international fora. Luxembourg maintains a very strong commitment to multilateralism and considers it critical for durable peace and security. It strongly supports strengthening of the EU and within its framework, works towards promotion of fundamental freedoms, human rights and rule of law. On issues concerning Pakistan such as Kashmir, Luxembourg follows the EU position. On the question of Security Council reforms, it supports the G-4 position primarily to accommodate Germany.
  1. Luxembourg supported Pakistan’s bid for GSP plus status in 2013, both at the official level in the European Commission and Council and at the political level in the European Parliament.

High Level Interactions
  1. Bilateral high-level exchanges between the two countries have been limited. There have been contacts at the sidelines of major international events, like meetings between the Foreign Ministers of Luxembourg and Pakistan on the sidelines of the UNGA. Last high level visit from Pakistan was by the Adviser to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs for participation in the 12th ASEM Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in Luxembourg, held from 5-6 November 2015.
  1. A delegation led by Foreign Minister of Luxemburg Mr. Jean Asselborn visited Pakistan in March 2019 and had a meeting with the Foreign Minister of Pakistan. He also paid a courtesy call on the Prime Minister.
Trade and Economic Relations

  1. Trade between Pakistan and Luxembourg has remained limited. Nearly 75 percent of Luxembourg’s trade is with fellow member states of the European Union. Pak-Luxembourg bilateral trade for the year 2018 was €7.62 million.
Cooperation at the International Fora
  1. Luxembourg supported Pakistan’s candidature to the Human Rights Council (HRC) for the term 2018-20. Luxembourg also supported our candidature to the UN Security Council for the term 2012-13 in return to our support its UNSC candidature for the term 2013-14.  Luxembourg extended unconditional support to our ECOSOC candidature for the terms 2011-12, 2015-17 and 2019-21.

Pakistani community
  1. Pakistani Community in Luxembourg comprises around 110 families. Most of them are professionals working in banks, financial institutions and multinational companies. Some have their own businesses.
Pakistan’s Relations with Republic of North Macedonia

Pakistan was one of the first Asian and Islamic countries to recognize Republic of North Macedonia and establish diplomatic relations with it. Pakistan also supported North Macedonia’s membership to the UN in 1993. Pakistan attaches great importance to strengthening bilateral ties with North Macedonia and is desirous of expanding mutually beneficial cooperation in diverse fields. The people of Pakistan have great goodwill for Macedonia.
  1. Pakistan has been offering Advanced and Senior level training programs for Macedonian diplomats at the Foreign Service Academy, Islamabad. Moreover, a number of Macedonian government officials have received training at public policy institutes in Pakistan. A wrestling team from Pakistan also participated in 31st World Military Wrestling Championship in Macedonia in September 2016.
  1. In order to strengthen the legal and institutional frameworks to expand bilateral cooperation in various sectors, MoUs/Agreements between the two Foreign Ministries, as well as trade, investment, and taxation treaties are under negotiations between the two countries.
  1. Further areas of cooperation, under active consideration, include promotion of Parliamentary exchanges and establishment of Parliamentary Friendship Groups.
Pakistan-Malaysia Relations

Pakistan and Malaysia enjoy close and cordial relations. Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize and establish diplomatic relations with Malaysia in 1957. Ever since, the two countries have come long way in consolidating relations in diverse areas. The two countries usually have a convergence of views on world affairs. Malaysia has been supportive to Pakistan’s ‘Vision East Asia” policy as well as in our efforts towards Pakistan’s Sectoral Dialogue Partnership with ASEAN.

Prime Minister Imran Khan visited Malaysia from 20-21 Nov 2018. Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, paid a state visit to Pakistan from 21-23 March 2019. Prime Minister Mahathir attended the National Day Parade as Guest of Honour.

Pakistan and Malaysia have established different bilateral Mechanisms to over view bilateral relation and to explore further opportunities of cooperation in the area of mutual benefits. The inaugural session of Bilateral Political Consultations was held on 25-26 February 2019. Pakistan and Malaysia signed a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement in November 2007 encompassing trade in goods, services, investment and economic cooperation. It is Malaysia’s second FTA after Japan and first FTA with any OIC member country.
Pakistan-Malta Bilateral Relations


  The Republic of Malta is a South European country in the centre of Mediterranean, 80 km South of Sicily, 284 km East of Tunisia and 333 km North of Libya. Malta covers just over 316 km inland area, making it one of the world’s smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital city of Malta is Valletta but the largest town is Birkirkara. Malta, with a population of around half a million has two official languages i.e. Maltese and English.
  1. Malta gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1964 and became a Republic in 1974; Malta was admitted to the European Union in 2004. It is member of the Schengen Group and became part of the Eurozone in 2008.
  1. Malta, which has a population of 400,000, is the European Union’s smallest state. According to the electoral commission of Malta about 92 percent of the island’s 342,000 eligible voters can cast vote.
  1. Pakistan’s relations with Malta have been friendly and cooperative ever since its independence from Britain in 1964.Both Pakistan and Malta do not maintain resident diplomatic missions in each other’s capital. Pakistan’s Ambassador to Malta is resident in Tunis.
Bilateral Cooperation

  1. Trade volume between both the countries remains at about US $16.5 Million. The economic content is expected to grow after revival of the Joint Commission and signing of the bilateral cooperation agreement between National Chamber of Commerce & Industry of Malta and Federation of Pakistan Chamber of Commerce & Industries (FPCCI).
  1. Since its membership of European Union in 2004, Malta’s significance for Pakistan has increased. It strongly supported Pakistan’s bid for EU GSP Plus status in December 2013.From 1st January, 2017 to 30th June, 2017, Malta was the President of European Unionand remained part of the EU Consul of Ministers from July 2016 to December 2017.
  1. Inaugural round of Bilateral Political Consultations between Pakistan and Malta was held in Valletta on 06 December 2019. The Special Secretary (Europe) led the Pakistan side.
Pakistan Community
  1. The migration of the Pakistani community in Malta started from 70s. Presently, there are nearly 500 Pakistanis living in Malta and are working in various professionals i.e. Health Sector, IT Sector, Services Sector etc.
Short Brief on
Pakistan-Moldova Relations

Pakistan and Moldova established diplomatic relations in 1994. Pakistan and Moldova continue with diplomatic interactions at regular intervals. The resident Ambassador of Pakistan in Romania, with concurrent accreditation to the Republic of Moldova, regularly visits Chisinau. Pakistan and the Republic of Moldova have extended support to each other at various International Fora.

  Economic Relations

  1. Pakistan-Moldova bilateral trade currently stands at US$ 4.579 million (January-November, 2018). In 2018, Pakistan’s exports to Moldova witnessed 68.44% increase as compared to 2017. A brief glimpse of the bilateral trade statistics during 2013-2018 is as under:
Year Total   (US$ Million) Pakistan Exports to Moldova (US$ Million) Pakistan’s Imports from Moldova (US$ Million) Trade Balance (US$ Million)
2013 4.65 2.7 1.95 +0.75
2014 10.87 2.9 7.97 5.07
2015 3.83 3.2 0.63 +2.57
2016 3.01 2.13 0.88 +1.25
2017 3.605 2.81 0.795 +2.015
2018 4.579 4.179 0.40 +3.779
  1. Pakistan’s major exports to Moldova include textiles, pharmaceutical products, cereal, toys, games and sports articles, artificial fibers etc. Pakistan’s major imports from Moldova include edible vegetables, some roots and tubers as well as cereals.
Pakistani Diaspora

  1. The Pakistan community in Moldova comprises of around 10-15 Pakistanis individuals.
Short Brief on
Pakistan-Montenegro Relations

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Montenegro were established in 2006. Since then Pakistan has been maintaining cordial and friendly relations with Montenegro. Pakistan has a deep desire to further strengthen its relations with this country and is accordingly considering conclusion of various bilateral agreements with Montenegro in diverse fields. A senior level delegation from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan visited Montenegro for political consultations in 2013 and discussed cooperation in mutual training; bilateral trade and consular matters. The delegation also met with Deputy Minister for Economy and Foreign Policy Advisor to the Prime Minister. Pakistan’s exports to Montenegro stood at € 1.6 million and € 1.2 million in 2017 and 2018 respectively.
Pakistan-Myanmar Relations

Political and diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Myanmar were established soon after Pakistan’s Independence in 1947. Myanmar’s (Burma at that time) envoy was the first Ambassador to present his credentials to Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The two countries signed a Treaty for Peace and Friendship in Rangoon in 1952, which covered negotiations for the conclusion of many agreements relating to consular services, trade, customs, cultural relations, and communications.

Two rounds of bilateral political consultations between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and Myanmar have been held in Yangon and Islamabad to overview bilateral relations.
Pakistan-New Zealand Relations

Pakistan and New Zealand enjoy cordial and friendly relations. Pakistan opened its embassy in Wellington in 2006. New Zealand does not have an Embassy in Islamabad. Their Ambassador in Tehran is concurrently accredited to Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pakistan and New Zealand are members of the Commonwealth.

Pakistan and New Zealand have established mechanisms of Bilateral Political Consultations and Joint Trade Committee to overview bilateral relations and to identify opportunities and possibilities for further cooperation. The third round of Bilateral Political Consultations and second round of Joint Trade Committee were held in 2017.
Pakistan-The Netherlands

Bilateral Relations


Pakistan and The Netherlands enjoy friendly relations. Bilateral diplomatic relations were established in 1948. The Netherlands established its diplomatic Mission in Pakistan in 1948 and Pakistan established its diplomatic Mission in the Netherlands in 1950.

  1. Pakistan holds an important place in Netherland’s foreign policy paradigm, primarily due to its geo-strategic location; the enhanced importance of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor CPEC and increasing bilateral trade and investment. Netherlands has been a constant supporter of GSP plus status for Pakistan.

Leadership-Level Interaction and Visits

  1. Queen Maxima of the Netherlands visited Pakistan as a Special Representative of UN Secretary General on Inclusive Finance in February 2016. The visit generated a lot of positive interest about Pakistan in the Dutch media and helped remove misconceptions about Pakistan’s law and order situation. It was the first visit of any Dutch Royal family member to Pakistan since 1962 when Crown Princess Beatrix had visited Pakistan.  Queen Maxima once again visited Pakistan in her capacity as UNSGSA on Inclusive Finance in December 2019.

Institutional Mechanisms and Legal Frameworks

  1. Pakistan and the Netherlands have institutionalized their relationship by establishing the mechanism of Bilateral Political Consultations since 2010. The 7th round of Bilateral Consultations was held in The Hague on 09 December 2019. During the consultations, the two sides, reviewed the entire spectrum of bilateral relations and explored various possibilities of further strengthening political, economic, education and cultural ties. They also exchanged views on global and regional issues.

Bilateral Trade and Investment

  1. According to the figures available with the State Bank of Pakistan, Pakistan’s exports to Netherlands during July 2018- March 2019 touched US $ 779 million, while Pakistan’s imports in the same period from Netherlands remained at US$1048 million. The top Pakistani commodities exported to Netherlands include Textile, apparels, cotton, leather and travel goods, beverages, cereals, sports requisites and footwear.

Parliamentary Cooperation

  1. A Parliamentary Friendship Group exists in the Senate of Pakistan with Syed Muzaffar Hussain Shah as its convener. The parliamentary Friendship Group in the National Assembly is convened by Ms. Romina Khurshid Alam.

Dual Nationality

  1. Pakistan concluded an agreement with the Netherlands on Dual Nationality in the 1990s. However, subsequently the Dutch Government did not ratify the agreement and adopted a policy to limit the cases of dual nationality. Notwithstanding the stance of the Dutch government, our government does recognize the right of Pakistani citizens to retain their citizenship after they acquire Dutch nationality. However, on the direction of Dutch government a large number of Pakistanis apply for renunciation of Pakistani citizenship after they are granted Dutch nationality.

Pakistani Community

  1. The Pakistani community in the Netherlands is generally viewed by the Dutch government as law abiding and peaceful. The estimated number of Pakistanis residing in the Netherlands is often quoted around 40,000. A very few could get Dutch citizenship in 1990s.
Pakistan – Norway Relations

Pakistan and Norway enjoy cordial and friendly relations. Norway is one of Pakistan’s major development partners.  In Pakistan, their development cooperation focuses in the fields of poverty reduction, education, social development, environment and gender equality.  

Political Relations

  1. The Prime Minister Imran Khan and Prime Minister Erna Solbergmet on the sidelines of the 74th session of UNGA in New York on 26 September 2019.
  1. Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi met the Norwegian Foreign Minister, Ine Eriksen Soreide, in Doha in February 2020. The two leaders also met on the sidelines of Sir Bani Yas Forum in Abu Dhabi on 18 November 2018. The two Foreign Ministers stressed the need to further promote bilateral relations in all areas of mutual interest, including political, economic, trade and investment, education, culture and parliamentary exchanges. Foreign Minister Qureshi invited Norwegian companies to invest in Pakistan in renewable energy, water and waste management, fisheries, and ports and shipping, and emulate the successful business model of Telenor in the country.
Annual Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. Pakistan and Norway have a mechanism of Annual Bilateral Political Consultations (BPC) between the Foreign Ministries at the level of Additional Secretary. These consultations take place regularly and nine rounds have been held so far. The 10th round of talks was held in Islamabad on 04 April 2019 and the next round is expected in Oslo.
Economic and Trade Relations
  1. The bilateral trade between Pakistan and Norway in 2019 was US$123.91million. The total exports of Pakistan to Norway were US$99.79 million and imports from Norway were US$24.24 million with a balance of trade in Pakistan’s favour.
  1. Norway views Pakistan as an attractive investment destination apart from a trade partner. There are around 10 Norwegian companies with businesses in Pakistan. Telenor is the largest Norwegian firm with investments over US$ 3.5 billion and creating 2,400 direct and 25,000 indirect jobs in Pakistan.

European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
  1. Norway is a member of European Free Trade Association (EFTA) along with Switzerland, Iceland and Liechtenstein. Pakistan and EFTA states signed a Joint Declaration on Cooperation (JDC) on 12 November 2012 to promote economic cooperation. The EFTA Ministerial Meeting held in Iceland on 25 June 2018, the EFTA Ministers supported the continuation of discussions with Pakistan with a view to exploring the possibility of future trade negotiations. Accordingly, EFTA proposed engaging in a scoping exercise, which would become a basis for decisions on the next steps toward FTA. The Pakistan side, represented by Ministry of Commerce, accepted the offer to engage in a scoping exercise with EFTA. Later, in November 2018 a draft scoping paper was proposed by EFTA, stating that the next meeting between Pakistan and EFTA states could be held after written comments from Pakistan on the draft paper were received. The Ministry of Commerce after examining the scoping paper shared its findings with the WTO Mission for sharing with EFTA. The response from EFTA is awaited.

Cooperation in Education

  1. Currently, there are around 300 Pakistani students enrolled in Norwegian universities in Masters and PhD programmes, particularly in the Sciences, Engineering and Medical Sciences departments.

Pakistan Community
  1. Presently, there are around 50,000 Pakistani residing in Norway, making Pakistanis the single largest resident immigrant community in Norway. Pakistanis are engaged almost in every field, including police service, airlines, banks, teaching, medical, engineering, journalism, media and politics etc. Presently, three Pakistanis are elected members of the Norwegian Parliament.
Pakistan –Oman Relations

Separated by only 202 nautical miles, Oman is considered as our close neighbor. By virtue of shared history and geography, as well as maritime boundaries, Oman holds geo-strategic significance for Pakistan. Most significantly, 30% of Omani population originates from Baluchistan and coastal areas of Sindh. Pakistanis are serving in Omani Army on active service. The two countries have institutional mechanisms of Bilateral Political Consultations and Joint Ministerial Commission. The Joint Business Council is yet to be inaugurated. Pakistan and Oman have strong Defence relations encompassing Joint Program Review Group, port calls, joint military exercises and exchanges.  

Pakistan community – a strong 208,000 – in Oman comprises of successful entrepreneurs, professionals, semi-skilled and un-skilled workforce.  

Leadership-level Interaction

High level exchanges between Pakistan and Oman have not been frequent during the last decade.

From Pakistan:

  • The Advisor to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs visited Oman in September 2016, at the invitation of the Omani Government.
  • Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi visited Muscat from 29-31 January 2019 to co-chair the 7th session of Pak-Oman JMC.
  • Minister for Religious Affairs and Interfaith Harmony, Sahibzada Noor ul Haq Qadri visited Muscat, Oman from 1st to 3rd November, 2019.

From Oman:

  • His Majesty (late) Sultan Qaboos bin Said visited Pakistan in April 2001.
  • The Minister Responsible for Foreign Affairs of Oman, H.E. Yousuf Bin Alawi Bin Abdullah visited Pakistan from 7-8 May 2017.
  • Minister for Endowment and Religious Affairs of Oman, H.E. Sheikh Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abdullah Assalami, visited Pakistan on 7-8 January 2020 at the invitation of his counterpart.
Economic Cooperation

  Bilateral trade figures between Pakistan and Oman during last two years are given below:
  Value in million US$
Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 131.98 809.46 941.44
2018-19 140.99 719.79 860.78
Source: State Bank of Pakistan
Pakistan –Palestine Relations
Pakistan and Palestine’s relations are strong and historical, which cover political, military and cultural domains. Pakistan fully supports the creation of an independent, viable, contiguous Palestinian state with pre-1967 borders, with East Jerusalem as its capital. Due to Pakistan’s pro-Palestinian stance, Pakistan never recognized Israel as a state.

  During 1947-49 Israel-Palestine war, Pakistan supported Palestine morally, diplomatically and legally. Pakistan Air-Force pilots, on deputation to Jordan, also participated in the 1967 and 1973 Arab–Israel wars. After the 1973 war, Pakistan and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) signed an agreement for training of PLO officers in Pakistan’s military institutions. The PLO was recognized as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinians at the Lahore Islamic Summit in February 1974. This was approved six months later at the Arab Summit in Rabat. PLO missions in Karachi and Islamabad were accorded full diplomatic recognition in 1975. During the First Intifada in 1987, pro-PLO rallies were held in Pakistan and the government sent food and medical supplies to Palestine.

  After Palestinian Declaration of Independence on 15 November 1988, Pakistan recognized the State of Palestine on 16 November 1988 and established full diplomatic relations with it by the end of 1989 by accrediting Pakistan Ambassador to Jordan, to Palestine.  

On our part, Pakistan’s commitment to the Palestinian people remains firm and abiding. The National Assembly and the Senate of Pakistan unanimously passed resolutions on 15th May, 2018, calling the controversial decision of the United States shifting its Embassy to Jerusalem a violation of international law and several UNSC resolutions, in particular, resolutions 476 and 478.  

Leadership-level Interaction  

Palestinian President, Mehmoud Abbas, paid an official visit to Pakistan in 2005, during his tour of Asia. He, again, visited Pakistan in February 2010. During the visit, President Abbas met with President Asif Ali Zardari and Prime Minister Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani, and discussed issues of mutual concern.

  In February 2013, President Mehmoud Abbas paid a two-day state visit to Pakistan at the invitation of the President of Pakistan and was accompanied by the Foreign Minister of Palestine. This was President Mehmoud Abbas’ first visit to Islamabad after the UNGA adopted a Resolution granting Non-member Observer State status to Palestine on 29 November, 2012.

  President Mehmoud Abbas’ last visit to Pakistan was from 30 January to 1 February 2017, along with five Ministers. He met the President of Pakistan and discussed bilateral political matters as well as other issues of common interest.
Pakistan – Philippines Relations

Pakistan’s relations with the Philippines have remained cordial and cooperative since their beginning in 1949. In 1997, both countries created the forum for Policy Consultations at the level of senior officials of the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs and the Pakistani Ministry of Foreign Affairs to discuss bilateral, regional and multilateral issues and to explore new areas for cooperation. The fifth round of Political Consultations was held in Islamabad on 18 January 2018.
Pakistan-Poland Relations
Diplomatic relations were established in 1962 and the resident missions were opened in the respective capitals in 1967.

Political Relations

  1. The Foreign Minister held a telephonic conversation with his Polish counterpart on 12 August 2019 to discuss the human rights situation in IOJ&K.
  1. At the invitation of the Polish Government, the former Federal Minister for Defence Mr. Khurram Dastgir paid an official visit to Warsaw from 17-19 April 2018. The key highlight of the visit was the signing of the Bilateral Defence Cooperation Agreement, which has been in the works for past many years.
Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. The MoU on Bilateral Political Consultations between the Foreign Ministries of Pakistan and Poland was signed on 11 February 2004. The mechanism provides good opportunity to review bilateral relations and find new avenues for mutual cooperation. The 7th Round of Bilateral Political Consultations was held in Warsaw on 12 December 2019. Special Secretary (Europe) Dr. Aman Rashid and Under Secretary of State for Eastern Policy and Asian Policy Marcin Przydacz led their respective delegations.

Trade and Economic Relations
  1. The volume of bilateral trade between Pakistan and Poland during 2018 was US $ 537.86 million. Exports from Pakistan to Poland were worth US $ 424.03 million. Pakistan imported from Poland goods of worth US $ 113.56.
  1. The main items which exported from Pakistan to Poland include oil seeds, salt, sulphur, ores, stones, plastering material, leather products, cotton, man-made staple fibers, articles of apparel & clothing accessories, other textile made ups, carpets & other floor coverings, surgical instruments, cutlery, aluminum & articles thereof and sports goods .
  1. Poland’s exports to Pakistan include items like products of animal origin, dairy products, flour, milk products, rubber and articles thereof, ceramic products, pharmaceuticals, organic/inorganic chemicals, machinery and auto parts.
  1. Polish Oil & Gas Company exploration in Pakistan PGNiG has been conducting petroleum exploration and production activities in Pakistan since 1997. In 2015, PGNIG discovered the Rizk Gas Field which was the second Tight Gas Field in the Kirthar Block. PGNIG has so far invested more than US$ 125 million in Pakistan including construction of over 50 kilometer gas transport pipeline and Rehman Gas production facility. PGNIG as in active pursuit to increase its footprint in Pakistan upstream Oil and Gas sector and as also interested to develop the Shale deposits in the country.
Defence Cooperation
  1. The newly independent Pakistan needed professional pilots to train its own air force. Air Commodore Wladyslaw Turowicz and other Polish pilots in England were invited to Pakistan. Air Commodore Turowicz, Capt. Zofia Turowicz, Capt. Banach, Capt. Kaczmarek, Capt. Hrycak and Mr. and Mrs. Mikulski were some of the brave Polish Air Force officers who helped in laying the foundation of Pakistan Air Force. Air Commodore Turowicz died in Pakistan. It was due to their untiring efforts that by 1956, 21 young Pakistani pilots were trained to fly. Wladyslaw Turowicz also laid the foundation of SUPARCO. He fought in 1965 war and won the title of Defender of Lahore. He was awarded eight medals for his exemplary services for the defence of Pakistan and for the development of its aero-space industry.
  1. At the invitation of Lt. Gen J. Mika General Commander of the Polish Armed Forces the Chief of the Army Staff (CAOS), General Qamar Javed Bajwa visited Poland from 18-22 June 2018. The programme including bilateral meetings as well as visits to the training areas and demonstration of Polish defence technology and equipment. He met with Defence Minister, Deputy Defence Minister in-charge of defence production and General Commander of the Polish Armed Forces. He also visited the office of state-run Polish Armaments Groups (PGZ).
  1. Air Marshall Arshad Mehmood Vice Chief of Air Staff along with a delegation of Pakistan Air Force participated in the ceremonies to mark the centenary of Polish Air Force on 23-27 August 2018. The Pakistani delegation brought two JF-17 and one super-Mushaq with them for the air show. Another visit of Chief of Air Staff to Poland is in the pipeline.
  1. Inspector of the Polish Air Force visited Pakistan. Major General Jan Mrek Sliwaka, Deputy General Commander of the Polish Armed Forces visited Pakistan from 15-18 October 2018 on the invitation of Director General Joint Staff. Moreover, a delegation of Polish Armament Group participates in Karachi Defence Expo.

Science and Technology, Culture, Education
  1. The Program for Cooperation in the fields of Science, Education and Culture between Pakistan and Poland was signed in April 2007. The Program provided a sound base for cooperation in the fields of education, science and culture between Pakistan and Poland. In education cooperation Polish universities have signed various MoUs with Pakistani universities in many fields including social sciences and humanities, management sciences, medical education, and engineering.

Pakistani Community
  1. As per the information received from Polish Office of Foreigners, the total number of legal Pakistanis in Poland is 995. Most of them are students, few professionals working in multinational companies and banks; and some are running small businesses of their own.
Pakistan-Portugal Relations

Bilateral Brief


Mainland Portugal is geographically located in Europe’s west coast, on the Iberian Peninsula. It is bordered by Spain to the North and East and by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South, therefore being in a geo-strategic location between Europe, America and Africa.
  1. In addition to the mainland, Portugal’s territory also includes the autonomous regions of the Azores and Madeira, two archipelagos located in the Atlantic Ocean. Portuguese border have remained unchanged since the XIII Century, making Portugal one of the oldest countries in the world with nearly 900 years of history that clearly demonstrates its strong identity and internal cohesion. Portugal covers an area of 92,226 square km with population of 10.309 million.

  1. Pakistan and Portugal established diplomatic relations on 7 November 1949. Pakistan and Portugal relations are traditionally friendly. At the international level, both countries are partners on several issues of global concern and work for the promotion of global peace and security.
Institutional Mechanism and legal framework
  1. Pakistan and Portugal has signed bilateral agreements relating to air services, trade, mutual investment & protection of investment, avoidance of double taxation, avoidance & prevention of fiscal evasion and a protocol of cooperation between the Foreign Service Academy of Pakistan and the Portuguese Diplomatic Institute.
  1. The first round of Pakistan-Portugal Bilateral Political Consultations was held at Lisbon on 06 September, 2016. The second round of Pakistan-Portugal Bilateral Consultations was held in Islamabad on 30 January 2018.

Economic Cooperation
  1. For the year 2019, total trade between Pakistan and Portugal touched €181.5 million.
Parliamentary Cooperation
  1. The Pakistan-Portuguese Parliamentary Friendship Group has existed in the Portuguese parliament since 2006.
  1. A Parliamentary Friendship Group was formed in our National Assembly soon after the May 2013 parliamentary elections and was reactivated in 2018. Pakistan also has a Parliamentary Friendship Group with Portugal at the Senate.
Pakistani Community
  1. There is a fledgling Pakistani community in Portugal comprising around 5,000 people. Most of them are working in agriculture sector.
Pakistan-Qatar Relations

Pakistan and Qatar enjoy cordial relations. Qatar announced visa on arrival facility for Pakistani tourists in June 2017 and also operationalized import of 100,000 Pakistani workers, the MoU for which was signed back in February 2016. Recent high-level exchanges have given an impetus to the bilateral relations. The two countries have institutional mechanisms of Bilateral Political Consultations and Joint Ministerial Commission. About 180,000 Pakistan nationals are currently living in Qatar who has remitted around USD 386 million in the last fiscal year. Defence and security cooperation between Pakistan and Qatar is governed by the Defence Cooperation Forum.

Leadership-level Interaction

From Pakistan

  • Prime Minister Imran Khan paid an official visit to Qatar on 21-22 January 2019.
  • The Foreign Minister, Shah Mahmood Qureshi, visited Doha on 30 December 2018, on the instructions of the Prime Minister.
  • Prime Minister Imran Khan paid a day-long visit to Doha on 27 February 2020.

From Qatar

  • The Amir of Qatar paid a landmark visit to Pakistan on 23-24 March 2015.
  • The father of Amir, Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani, visited Pakistan on the invitation of President Mamnoon Hussain in January 2017. He had earlier visited Pakistan in 1984 and 1999.
  • The Amir of Qatar H.H Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani visited Pakistan on 22-23 June 2019 at the invitation of the Prime Minister.
Economic Cooperation  

Bilateral trade figures between Pakistan and Qatar during last two years are given below:  
Value in million US$
Year Exports Imports Total Trade
2017-18 89.90 1,500 1,589.90
2018-19 106.36 2,505.27 2,611.63
Source: State Bank of Pakistan
Pakistan-Republic of Korea Relations

Pakistan and Republic of Korea relations are deep rooted in Buddhist culture and it is believed that that Buddhism travelled to South Korea from Pakistan. Marantha’s, the person who introduced Buddhism in Korea in 384 AD, hometown is today’s Chota Lahore in Swabi district, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa.

Pakistan and Republic of Korea enjoy friendly relations since the establishment of Ambassadorial level relations on 7th November 1983. This relationship has grown in all fields of mutual benefit. The two countries regularly hold the sessions of Bilateral Political Consultations to review the entire spectrum of bilateral relations and identify opportunities and possibilities for further cooperation. The 10th round of Bilateral Political Consultations was held in November 2018. There are regular parliamentary exchanges between the two countries which help promote mutual understanding. Two parliamentary delegations from South Korea visited Pakistan in the months of April and July 2019.

Economic relationship is the bedrock of bilateral relationship between the two countries. Republic of Korea is the 8th largest investor in Pakistan. In 2018, bilateral trade was US$ 1.398 billion. There are nearly 2500 Pakistani students in South Korea studying in the areas of science, medicine, IT, engineering etc.  Labour from Pakistan come to Korea under the Employment Permit System (EPS), provided for by the MOU signed between the Governments of Pakistan and South Korea, signed in 2006. Total number of Pakistani community in the Republic of Korea (ROK) stands at 13,212.
Short Brief on
Pakistan-Romania relations

Pakistan and Romania have enjoyed cordial relations ever since the establishment of formal diplomatic relations in 1964. Since its joining of the European Union in 2007, Romania has expressed considerable goodwill to further enhance its relations with Pakistan in different fields.  

Political Relations

  1. During the past few years, the high level political interactions between Pakistan and Romania have picked up pace. The former Speaker of National Assembly of Pakistan visited Romania in March 2016. Former Adviser to the Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs, held a meeting with the former Romanian Foreign Minister on the sidelines of the 11th ASEM Summit in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on 16 July 2016. The former Minister for Defence Production of Pakistan visited Romania in August 2016.
Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and Romania have an institutionalized mechanism of interactions in the form of regular Bilateral Political Consultations. The 9th round of Pakistan-Romania Bilateral Political Consultations was held in Bucharest on 05 December 2017.
Bilateral Trade

  1. During 2018, Pakistan-Romania trade amounted to US $70.52 million. Romania’s exports to Pakistan stood at US $ 42.135 million while Pakistan’s exports to Romania amounted to US$ 28.388 million. Pakistan is importing oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, machinery and its parts, petroleum & chemical elements as well as compounds from Romania. Pakistan’s major exports to Romania include chemical material and products, material of animal origin, cotton fabric (woven), synthetic fabrics and manufactured textile goods.
  1. In July 2018, a trade mission led by the then President of the Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce and Industry visited Bucharest. During the visit, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was also concluded between Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce & Industry and the Romanian Chamber of Commerce & Industry.
  1. With a view to promoting Pakistani mangoes in the Romanian market, the Embassy of Pakistan, in collaboration with the Trade Development Authority of Pakistan (TDAP) organized a Mango Festival on 27 July 2019 in Bucharest.
Defence Cooperation

  1. Defence relations between Pakistan and Romania are witnessing robust cooperation. In recent years, both sides have been actively participating in defence-related exhibitions held in the two countries. A bilateral Defence Cooperation Agreement between Pakistan and Romania entered into force in 2016.
  1. Pakistan and Romania have established a mechanism of Joint Military Committee for overseeing enhanced bilateral defence cooperation. The 3rd round of this Committee is scheduled to be held in Bucharest on mutually convenient dates.
Cooperation in the fields of Education and Culture

  1. Pakistan and Romania are currently negotiating a draft Programme of Cooperation in the fields of Education, Culture, Mass-media, Youth and Sports.
  1. With the aim of marking Pakistan’s cultural footprint in Romania, the first Pakistan Film Festival was organized by the Mission from 19-21 January 2018 in the Bucharest. Its second edition was held from 30-31 March 2019 in Bucharest. In 2017, the Embassy had arranged a ‘Pakistan FlashMob’ in Bucharest. The first ever Pakistan Golf Cup was organized by the Mission on 15 July 2018 in Bucharest. In addition to the above, Embassy of Pakistan actively participates in different Multicultural diplomatic festivals organized in Bucharest.
Pakistani Diaspora

  1. The Pakistan community in Romania comprises of around 150 individuals. These include Pakistanis with such diverse background as professionals, businessmen, traders, shopkeepers and students.
Pakistan-Russia Relations

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and the Soviet Union were established in 1948.  The Soviet Union built Karachi Steel Mills, major thermal power facilities at Muzaffargarh, Multan and Guddu, and helped Pakistan in the establishment of OGDC and development of agriculture.  

Bilateral Relations
  1. Prime Minister Imran Khan met Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev of Russia on the sidelines of the First China International Import Expo-2018 in Shanghai on 5 November 2018.
  1. Prime Minister Imran Khan held an informal meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin on the sidelines of SCO Council of Heads of State in Bishkek on 13 June 2019.
  1. Foreign Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi visited Moscow from 25-26 December 2018 and held delegation level talks with his Russian counterpart on 26 December 2018.
  1. Foreign Minister Qureshi held meeting with his Russian counterpart on the sidelines of SCO Council of Foreign Ministers in Bishkek on 22 May 2019. The two Foreign Ministers signed a Joint Statement on No First Placement of Weapons in Outer Space.
  1. The Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov called on the Prime Minister on the sidelines of the 74th session of UNGA at New York on 26 September 2019. Prime Minister reiterated his invitation for President Putin to visit Pakistan.

Institutional Mechanisms
  1. Pakistan and Russia have strong institutional mechanisms in place for cooperation in diverse fields, including through Pakistan- Russia Strategic Dialogue, Pakistan- Russia Inter-Governmental Commission (IGC) on Trade, Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation, Joint Working Group on Energy Cooperation, Joint Working Group on Trade, Joint Coordination Committee on North–South Gas Pipeline, Consultative Group on Strategic Stability, Joint Working Group on Counter Terrorism, Consular Consultations and Consultations on Regional Issues.

Cooperation in Energy
  1. In the field of energy, the two countries are actively pursuing collaboration. Pakistan and Russia have signed Agreements/MoUs related to the construction of North-South gas pipeline and supply of LNG and air mix plants. Other projects such as for construction of a 600 MW combined cycle power plant and gas-fired power plants are under discussion.  A Joint Working Group on Energy was also established within the framework of IGC. The sixth session was held in Islamabad on 27 December 2018.

Trade and Economic Cooperation
  1. The volume of bilateral trade in 2019 (Jan-Oct) reached US$ 660.2 million. Pakistan exports to Russia in 2019 (Jan-Oct) stood at US$ 321.9 million and Pakistan imports from Russia were US$ 257.5 million.
Defence Cooperation

  1. The First ever Pakistan-Russia joint military exercise Frienship-2016 was held from 23 September-10 October 2016 in Cherat, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. About 70 Russian ground troops participated in the event. The second edition Friendship-2017 was held in Southern Russia from 23 September-04 October 2017. The third edition Friendship-III was held from 22 October- 4 November 2018 at Cherat and Pabbi, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The fourth edition of Druzhba-IV-2019 will be held in Russia in October/November 2019.

  2. The two navies also held two editions of Arabian Monsoon counter narcotics naval exercise in the Arabian Sea in November 2014 and December 2015 respectively. In 2018, the third edition of Arabian Monsoon was held during IDEAS-2018. A Russian warship participated in multilateral naval exercise AMAN-2017 from 10-14 February 2017. Pakistan Navy Ship ASLAT participated in Russian Naval Day celebrations in St. Petersburg in August 2018.

Educational and Cultural Cooperation

  1. Pursuant to the Agreement on Cooperation in the fields of Culture, Science and Education signed on 8 July 1997, the two sides signed a Programme to Implement Cultural, Educational and Scientific Exchanges for the period of 2003-2006 which was renewed for the period of 2007-2009. Currently, the draft of the Programme for renewal/extension is under consideration of the two sides.

  2. An MoU on Scientific and Technical cooperation was signed during the fourth session of IGC meeting held in Islamabad in November 2015. The Russian Ministry of Science and Education regularly offers scholarships to Pakistani students (both bachelors as well as postgraduate level studies) in various Russian universities and institutions. Russian government has offered 17 scholarships to Pakistani students in 2019.
Brief on
Pakistan-San Marino Relations


San Marino is the third smallest country in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco. Its capital is the City of San Marino and its largest city is Dogana. The local currency is Euro and the country’s economy mainly relies on tourism, finance, industry and services. Despite being extremely small and landlocked, it is considered to have a highly stable economy, with a 91% employment, no national debt and stated budget surplus.


  1. San Marino is a parliamentary democracy that is governed by two Captains Regent which are both Heads of State and Heads of Government. They are chosen from opposing parties to maintain the balance of power.

  2. The Captains Regent are elected by an absolute majority of the votes cast by Parliamentarians in a secret ballot. The couple obtaining the absolute majority of votes is elected. A Captain Regent may be no less than 25 years of age, may not have held this position in the preceding three years (the so-called “law of prohibition”) and has to be a San Marino citizen by origin (that is to say citizenship acquired at birth).


  1. Despite being a small country, San Marino has a strong economy with a nominal GDP of $1.489 billion (2015) and GDP (per capita) of $45, 200/- (2015). It has no national debt and an employment rate of nearly 92%. Its primary trade partner is Italy with its exports at 84.7% and imports at 81.1 %. The top exports of San Marino are Washing and Bottling Machines ($28M), Woodworking Machines ($12.3M), Packaged Medicaments ($8.39M), Light Pure Woven Cotton ($5.68M) and Other Non-Knit Clothing Accessories ($5.53M). Top imports are Coated Flat-Rolled Iron ($20.6M), Petroleum Gas ($20.1M), Other Footwear ($19.6M) and Raw Aluminium ($19.2M).

  2. Though not being part of the EU, San Marino has a Customs Union Agreement with the EU since 1st April 2002. Under this agreement, a customs union was established by abolishing import and export duties and charges having equivalent effect between San Marino and the EU. San Marino applies the common customs tariff to goods coming from third countries, as well as the common commercial policy and the Community regulations on trade in agricultural products and Community veterinary, phytosanitary and quality regulations.

Bilateral Relations

  1. The relations between the two countries were established under the “Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of San Marino on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations”. It was signed on 12 April 2006 in Rome.

  2. Ms. Tasnim Aslam was the first Ambassador of Pakistan accredited to the Republic of San Marino. In January 2016, Ambassador to Italy Mr. Nadeem Riyaz presented his credentials to the Captains Regent, Ms. Lorella Stefanelli and Mr. Nicola Renzi.

  3. During his visit from 30th March to 1st April 2017, Ambassador Nadeem Riyaz met with the Sammarinese Foreign Minister and Ex-Captain Regent, Mr. Nicola Renzi. He also attended a seminar titled “The Integration of European Third Countries in the Single Market: the small sized states”.

Education and Cultural Exchanges

  1. To promote the culture of Pakistan, the Embassy in collaboration with the Secretary of State of the Republic of San Marino had also organized an exhibition on Pictorial Books on Pakistan in March 2016 at Palazzo Graziani, City of San Marino. The exhibition displayed various facets of Pakistan through books by different authors from around the world. It comprised nearly a 100 books on archaeology, history, mountains, calligraphy, visual arts, cities, defence, cuisine and music.
Pakistan-Saudi Arabia Relations

Saudi Arabia and Pakistan attach immense importance to their fraternal relations governed by the Treaty of Friendship signed on 25 November 1951 at Jeddah. These relations have been strengthened over the years by a history of strong Saudi financial assistance to Pakistan, which in return has provided valuable support to Saudi Arabia whenever required. High-level exchanges between the two countries are a norm. Our defence relations with the Kingdom cover military training, deputations and provision of arms and equipment. Our bilateral trade stands at $ 3398 million (2018-19), with exports worth only $ 317 million (2018-19). Saudi FDI in Pakistan during 2018-19 was around $ 19.2 million. Pakistani Diaspora in the Kingdom stands at around 2.3 million.

Leadership-level Interaction

  • Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman paid a State Visit to Pakistan on 17-18 February 2019 which resulted in the launching of Saudi-Pakistan Supreme Coordination Council (SPSCC) to be headed by Prime Minister and the Crown Prince.
  • The Foreign Minister of UAE HH Abdullah bin Zayed and the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia HE Mr. Adel Al Jubeir visited Islamabad on 4 September 2019 with the objective of discussing the evolving situation in IOJ&K and to discuss possible actions to ease off tensions between India and Pakistan.
  • Prime Minister Imran Khan visited Saudi Arabia on 19-20 September 2019 while going to New York to attend the 74th Session of UNGA.
  • As part of his initiative for peace and security in the region, Prime Minister Imran Khan visited Saudi Arabia on 15 October 2019 following his visit to the Islamic Republic of Iran.
  • Prime Minister Imran Khan visited Saudi Arabia on 14 December 2019 where he held wide-ranging consultations with Crown Prince His Royal Highness Mohammed Bin Salman covering bilateral mattersand developments in the regional context.
  • Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi visited Saudi Arabia on 13 January 2020, on the instructions of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, to meet with his counterpart His Highness Faisal Bin Farhan al Saud, Minister of Foreign Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to exchange views on the unfolding developments in the Middle East.
  • In addition, frequent exchange of Ministerial visits and telephonic contacts between the leadership further consolidated these relations.

Economic Cooperation

  Our bilateral trade has an immense potential for increase. While the bulk of our imports consists of POL products, our exports are mainly confined to textile and food items with a low share of manufactured products. The statistics of bilateral trade are given below:  
Value in US$ million
Year Exports Imports Total trade
2016-17 359.3 2,409.7 2,769
2017-18 316.7 3,100.0 3,416
2018-19 329.519 2,986.03 3,315.54
Source: State bank of Pakistan

SCO is a permanent inter-governmental trans-regional organization. It was established on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai. Kazakhstan, People’s Republic of China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan are its founding members. Pakistan and India became SCO’s full members in 2017. SCO is home to 43% of the world’s population and covers almost quarter of the global landmass. The region accounts for 25% of the global GDP.

Pakistan’s Participation in SCO

Pakistan had been participating in the SCO activities as an Observer since 2005. During the 17th Meeting of the Council of Heads of State of SCO in Astana, Kazakhstan on 8-9 June 2017, Pakistan was admitted as member of the SCO. Since becoming full member in 2017, Pakistan has been actively participating in all SCO processes including at the leadership and experts level.

SCO Family

Currently, SCO has the following Members, Observers and Dialogue Partners:
  • Member States (Eight): Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Kyrgyz Republic, People’s Republic of China, Republic of India, Republic of Kazakhstan, Republic of Tajikistan, Republic of Uzbekistan and the Russian Federation.
  • Observer States (Four): Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Mongolia.
  • Dialogue Partners (Six): Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, Kingdom of Cambodia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Republic of Armenia and Republic of Turkey.
SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.  

Objectives of SCO

  • Strengthening mutual confidence and good-neighbourly relations among member countries;
  • Making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region, and
  • Promoting effective cooperation in politics, trade and economy, science and technology, culture as well as education, energy, transportation, tourism, environmental protection and other fields;
  • Moving towards the establishment of a new, democratic, just and rational political and economic international order.

Key Areas of Significance to Pakistan:

  • SCO provides a useful platform to further strengthen our ties with our regional partners and extended neighbourhood.
  • Membership in SCO allows Pakistan to underscore its interest in regional peace, stability and development and our support for regional cooperation against terrorism and extremism.
  • SCO allows Pakistan to explore greater economic linkages and cooperation with Central Asian countries in the areas of energy and transport and promoting Pakistan as a regional trade corridor.
  • SCO membership helps us to put focus on intra-regional trade and promote connectivity. It is a good platform to give impetus to existing regional connectivity projects of Pakistan’s interest.
  • It provides a forum to convey Pakistan’s perspective to SCO member states on important regional issues and find common approaches to security, stability and regional peace.

The Prime Minister’s participation in the 19th Meeting of Council of the Heads of State (CHS) of SCO Member States (13-14 June 2019, Bishkek)

Council of Heads of State of SCO Member States (CHS) is the highest decision making SCO organ. CHS takes strategic decisions to set priority areas and basic directions of SCO activities. The Prime Minister of Pakistan Imran Khan attended the 19th Meeting of CHS held in Bishkek on 13-14 June 2019. In his statement at the Summit, the Prime Minister inter alia underscored the historic, geographic and economic linkages between Pakistan and SCO region; highlighted myriad strengths of Pakistan and the process of transformation underway in the country; stressed the inextricable linkage between peace and development as the anchor of Pakistan’s foreign policy outlook; underlined the salience of CPEC in the context of connectivity and regional prosperity; shared Pakistan’s perspective on the rapidly changing global scenario; and articulated Pakistan’s positions on major issues such as Afghanistan; peace, progress and prosperity in South Asia; and tensions in the Gulf/Middle East. The Prime Minister proposed an 8-pronged course of action for SCO with a futuristic and forward-looking agenda, which inter alia included reinforcing cooperation that rejects confrontation; strengthening SCO’s core mandate of mitigating the risks of conflict; finalizing arrangements for trade in local currencies, and setting up SCO Fund and SCO Development Bank; and synergizing region-wide connectivity initiatives for infrastructure connectivity. Concluding the Summit, 14 landmark decisions on SCO’s future priorities related to political, security, trade and economic and cultural cooperation were signed. The participating Leaders also signed the Bishkek Declaration, a comprehensive document emphasizing the “Shanghai Spirit” characterized by mutual trust and benefit, equality, joint consultations, respect for cultural diversity and aspiration for collective development.
Pakistan-Serbia Relations

Pakistan and Serbia enjoy friendly relations. In 2018, the total volume of trade increased to over US$ 14.7 million from US$ 9 million in 2011. The balance of trade remains overwhelmingly in our favour at US$ 11.354 million. The biggest export items were rice, tobacco and allied materials, crude minerals, leather, textiles, garments, jackets, gloves, manufactures of metals, cutlery, sportswear, footballs, instruments for scientific, surgical, dental & veterinary use. The major import items were: machinery, animal products, feeding staff for animals, cork and wood, chemicals, iron & steel.

  1. Pakistani community in Serbia is nominal and only 6-8 families are living in Belgrade. Serbia maintains an Honorary Consulate General in Karachi since September 2005. It has nominated a prominent businessman Mr. Tariq Rafi as Honorary Consul General.
Pakistan-Singapore Relations

Relations between Singapore and Pakistan have remained friendly and cordial since the establishment of diplomatic relations on 17th August, 1966. Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognise Singapore soon after its independence in 1965. Pakistan and Singapore celebrated Golden Jubilee of Establishment of Diplomatic Relations on 17th August 2016. Both countries share similar perceptions on most international and regional issues.

Both the countries have established the mechanism of Bilateral Consultations to explore the opportunities of further strengthening bilateral relations.
Pakistan-Slovakia Bilateral Relations

Pakistan and the Slovak Republic enjoy cooperative relations. The Pakistan Embassy in Vienna was given concurrent accreditation for the Slovak Republic in 1996. Slovak Republic does not maintain diplomatic presence in Islamabad. Its Embassy in Tehran is concurrently accredited to Islamabad. The Slovak Commercial Counselor for Pakistan is also based in Tehran.

Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. The first ever bilateral political talks between the Foreign Ministries of Pakistan and the Slovak Republic were held in Bratislava on 30 November 2012. Slovak Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan (SRAP) also attended. Each side agreed to augment their cooperation and coordination at various international forums, including on Afghanistan. The last meeting was held in Bratislava on 4 June 2015.

Economic Relations

  1. The Pakistan-Slovak bilateral trade is modest, but gradually rising. In 2018, the total bilateral trade amounted to €48 million. Pakistan had a positive trade balance with the Slovak Republic amounting to € 24 million, with exports worth €36 million and imports amounting to €12 million.
  1. Pakistan’s major exports to the Slovak Republic have been cotton yarn, clothing, footwear with synthetic sole, sports items and chromium ores. Major items of import from the Slovak Republic include motor engines for special use, synthetic silk/rayon fibre, polyester fibre, products of iron and steel, ball bearing and motor vehicle parts.

Bilateral Agreements

  1. Pakistan and the Slovak Republic have agreements on Cultural Cooperation and Visa Abolition (for diplomatic and official passport holders only). Agreements on bilateral Economic Cooperation and Air Services are under consideration between the two countries.

Humanitarian Assistance

  1. The Slovak government offered material humanitarian assistance to the flood victims in Pakistan in November 2011. A number of Slovak NGOs were involved in the relief effort operated in the flood-affected areas of Pakistan between the years 2010 and 2011. They helped disburse the Slovak material assistance under the aegis of the Slovak Agency for International Development Cooperation (SAID).

Pakistani Community in Slovak Republic

  1. There is a small Pakistani community in the Slovak Republic (exact figures are not available). Most of the Pakistanis residing in Slovakia are engaged in blue collar occupations or run small businesses. A small number of Pakistanis have also acquired Slovak nationality. A few Pakistani students pursue studies in Slovak universities.
Brief on
Pakistan-Slovenia Relations

  Located in the South-Central Europe, Slovenia has an area of 20,273 sq km and is surrounded by Austria, Hungary, Croatia and Italy. By virtue of its location between Balkans and Western Europe, the country controls some of Europe’s important transit routes.

Pakistan-Slovenia Bilateral Relations
  1. Pakistan was among the first countries to recognize the Republic of Slovenia after its independence in June 1991. The Embassy of Pakistan, Vienna was concurrently accredited to Slovenia in 1993. In 2001, Government of Pakistan decided to shift Slovenia’s concurrent accreditation from Vienna to Rome. Slovenia opened an Honorary Consulate General in Karachi in 2007.

Bilateral Trade
  1. Pakistan’s exports to Slovenia have steadily been rising over the past fifteen years as has been the volume of two-way trade. Recently, the Balance of Trade has also turned in Pakistan’s favour. Trade figures for the past three years are as under:
US$ Thousands

Year Pak Exports Pak Imports Two-Way Trade
2014-2015 34.608 7.130 41.738
2015-2016 44.154 12.261 56.415
2016-2017 50,058 6846 56,141
2017-2018 59213 5574 64787
(Source: State Bank of Pakistan)
  1. Pakistan’s major exports to Slovenia include ores and minerals, cotton yarn and fabrics, bed and table linen, toilet and kitchen linen, chemicals, leather, garments and clothing items, sports equipment. Main imports from Slovenia are machinery & equipment, compressors, fans, electric motors, generators, centrifuges, including dryers, filter, blades for machines and appliances.
  1. To facilitate interaction between businessmen as well as to promote bilateral trade between the two countries, the Slovenia-Pakistan Business Alliance (SPBA) was established, in June 2012 by the business communities of the two countries.

Pakistani Community and Consular Matters
  1. The size of Pakistani community in the country is very small, numbering less than one hundred.
Pakistan-Spain relations
Executive Brief


Spain is an important European country with GDP of more than US$ 1.8 trillion and population of 46.7 million. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, NSG, OSCE, OECD, NSG and Schengen agreement, among others.

  1. Bilateral relations with Spain were established in 1950s. However, it was in early 1990 that Pakistan took initiative to strengthen its relations with Spain because of growing number of Pakistani diaspora in Spain.

Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. An MoU on Annual Bilateral Consultations (ABC) between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Spain and Pakistan was signed in 2006. The last Round of Annual Bilateral Consultations was held in Islamabad on 15th February 2018.

Trade and Economic

  1. Pakistan-Spain bilateral trade is on upward trajectory and trade volume again crossed the US$ 1 billion mark for the calendar year 2018, fifth year in a row and same is expected for the Year 2019.
  1. In 2018, Pakistan´s exports to Spain continued their positive trend and amounted to US$ 1099.06, an increase of 28.07% when compared to last year’s same period. For this period, total trade between Pakistan and Spain stood at US$ 1382.99 million (+39.09%), while the balance of trade remains heavily in Pakistan favor by US$ 815.13 million.
Cooperation at International Fora  

  1. Spain and Pakistan enjoy shared outlook and commonality of views on a number of international forums especially the United Nations. Both countries support each other´s candidatures at a number of UN bodies.
Pakistani Community

  1. The presence of about 100,000 Pakistanis adds a special dimension to our bilateral relations. Pakistani community began to settle in Spain, mainly in the city of Barcelona, in 1990s. The majority of Pakistani community resides in the region of Catalonia (in and around Barcelona).
Pakistan – Sweden Relations
Short Brief

Sweden was the first Scandinavian country to establish diplomatic relations with Pakistan in 1949. Pakistan Embassy in Stockholm was set up in 1958.

  Bilateral Relations
  1. The last major visit from Pakistan to Sweden was by former President Pervez Musharraf in 2004. However, there has been regular interaction between the leadership of the two countries on the sidelines of the major international events.
Bilateral Political Consultations
  1. Bilateral Political Consultations between Pakistan and Sweden started in November 1992. The 16th round of Pakistan-Sweden Bilateral Political Consultation was held in Islamabad on 11 March 2020. Dr Aman Rashid, Special Secretary (Europe) and Ms. Cecilia Ruthstrom-Ruin, Head of Department for Asia and the Pacific from the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs led their respective delegations.
Trade and Economic Cooperation
  1. The volume of bilateral trade in 2019 stood at US$ 499 million. Pakistan’s exports to Sweden stood at US$ 161 million and imports from Sweden amounted to US$ 338 million.

  1. Pakistan’s imports are mainly industrial goods, chemicals, machinery transport equipment, agricultural products, minerals, paper and pulp, telecommunication apparatus and defence equipment. Multinational companies like Ericsson, SAAb, Tetrapak, Volvo, ABB and Alfa, and Laval dominate the Swedish exports.
  1. Pakistan’s major exports to Sweden are cotton fabrics, leather, textiles sports goods, carpets, rice and mangoes. IKEA, H&M and Lindex are major buyers of textile products and have their own offices in Pakistan.

  1. Swedish multinationals, such as Ericsson, Alfa Laval and Volvo, have been present in the Pakistan market for decades, and contributed to forming strong ties between the two countries. Swedish retail companies such as Ikea and H&M are major buyers of textile products from Pakistan. Several Swedish companies have also made direct investments in Pakistan, including Tetra Pak and Stora Enso. In total, more than twenty Swedish companies are represented in the Pakistan market. Sweden invested SEK 42 million in Pakistan in 2016. Major Companies working in Pakistan are ABB, Atlas Copco, Alfa Laval, Equinox, Ericsson, Panasian Group, SAAB, VPL, Oriflame, Profarm, SKF, Tetrapack, Wah Nobel, Bulleh Shah, Ecolean, Ikea, Lindex, Pulse etc.

Education and Cultural Cooperation
  1. Sweden is a popular country for Pakistani students. Pakistani students are eligible to get scholarships to study in Sweden since the establishment of Swedish Institute Study Scholarships (SISS) in 2011. There is collaboration between the Swedish School of Textiles, Boras and the Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design (PIFD), Lahore. Under this collaboration, which was started in 2007, 37 students have so far benefited.
Defence Cooperation

  1. There has been significant defence collaboration with Sweden which dates back to the early 1960s. Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan, undertook a visit to Sweden on 18-22 June, 2019 at the invitation of the Swedish defence giant SAAB. During the visit, the Air Chief held a meeting with Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces. Brig Gen Carl-Johan Edström, Deputy Chief of Swedish Air Force held a dinner reception in honor of the visiting dignitary.
Pakistani Community
  1. The Pakistani community in Sweden numbers about 18000, including those with Swedish citizenship. Some Pakistanis have done well and are working in Swedish multinational companies. The community is largely located in Gothenburg, Malmo and Stockholm. There are about 13 Associations of Pakistanis in Stockholm.
Pakistan-Switzerland Relations


Pakistan and Switzerland enjoy close friendly relations. Diplomatic relations were established in 1949. Two countries signed a Technical Cooperation Agreement in 1966, supplemented by an Agreement on Disaster Relief in 1975. Afterwards, when Pakistan was designated a priority country for development cooperation, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) opened a Cooperation Office in Islamabad in 1977. Switzerland was also a member of the Pakistan Development Forum. Pakistan received humanitarian assistance from Switzerland during the earthquake of 2005, dislocation of people from Swat valley and Malakand region in 2009 and during the floods of 2010.

Leadership Level Interaction

  1. The latest highest-level inter-action took place when Prime Minister Imran Khan held a meeting with Swiss President Ueli Maurer on the sidelines of 74th UNGA on 23 September 2019.


Annual Bilateral Consultations between Foreign Ministries

  1. The proposal to institutionalize annual bilateral consultation at Foreign Secretary level was made by Switzerland in 1996. Both countries have held 10 rounds of Annual Bilateral Consultations between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs. The 10th Round was held on 26-27 February 2018 in Berne. Mr. Zaheer Aslam Janjua, Additional Secretary (Europe) led the Pakistan side whereas the Swiss side was led by Ambassador Johannes Matyassy, Assistant State Secretary for Asia Pacific at the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. The two sides reviewed bilateral relations, including political, economic, trade, investment and cooperation in the fields of education, science and technology, agriculture and defence. Multilateral cooperation on key areas of interest was also discussed along with an exchange of views on important global and regional developments.

Economic Cooperation

  1. The economic ties between Pakistan and Switzerland are longstanding. Bilateral trade between Pakistan and Switzerland has seen a gradual increase during the last five years. According to the figures available from the Swiss authorities, the bilateral trade between both the countries during 2018 increased by 9%. The total volume of trade increased to US $ 564.42 million from US $ 518 million in 2017. Pakistan’s exports to Switzerland reached US $ 165.99 million compared to US$ 145 million in 2017. Pakistan’s significant exports to Switzerland included cotton, textile and apparel, leather goods, and beverages. Pakistani textile exports to Switzerland were at all time high and reached US $ 121 million.
  1. Swiss exports to Pakistan in 2018 increased from US$ 373 million in 2017 to US$ 398.43 in 2018. The main Swiss exports to Pakistan included pharmaceutical products that increased from US$ 158 million to US $199 million. Exports of machinery and mechanical equipment, however, decreased by 30% and reached US$ 49 million; it remained the second largest component in the Swiss exports to Pakistan. Electrical Equipment decreased from US$ 22 million to US$ 14 million in 2018. Organic Chemicals’ share increased from US$ 22.98 million to US$ 27.6 million.
  1. Last five year’s trade figures are as follows:

US$ Million

Pak Exp.118109123.1145165.99
Pak Imp299323362.3373398.43

* SECO figures

Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC)

  1. The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) has been working in Pakistan since 1966. It was instrumental in providing emergency relief during the devastating floods in 2010. In the aftermath of the floods, SDC initiated various projects like reconstruction of schools, provision of safe drinking water, Disaster Risk Reduction, and emergency relief. The SDC projects mainly focused in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and FATA areas. According to SDC, the Swiss Government provided US$ 10.8 million in 2018 as part of the Cooperation Strategy 2017-2019. Switzerland has planned to spend US $ 37.2 million on development cooperation as well as humanitarian aid from 2017 to closure of its bilateral operations.

Science & Technology, Culture and Education

  1. Through the Federal Commission for Scholarships for Foreign Students (FCS), Switzerland annually offers postgraduate scholarships to students from around 180 countries including Pakistan. Pakistani students are offered excellence scholarships at public universities in Switzerland. The excellence scholarships are available for studies ranging from humanities to cutting edge engineering and robotics. Around 90 Pakistani students are studying in Switzerland, most are doctorate and post-doctorate scholars and some are pursuing master degrees.

Pakistani Community in Switzerland

  1. The Pakistani community in Switzerland, like their compatriots living elsewhere in the world, not only contributes to the local economy but also enriches social traditions and values while building bridges between the two societies. At the end of 2018, the total number of Pakistanis in Switzerland was 3020. Pakistani nationals who have acquired Swiss nationality are around 2000.
Pakistan-Syria Relations
Pre-conflict, Pakistan and Syria have been enjoying close friendly relations, which are deep rooted in bonds of faith, history and culture. Despite the security situation in Syria, Pakistan maintains diplomatic representation in Damascus, while Syria has its Embassy operating in Islamabad.  

Pakistan’s position on the situation in Syria is based on the principles of international law, the UN charter and the rules of inter-state conduct. Pakistan has been supporting the Syrian demand for Israeli withdrawal from Golan Heights. Our trade and economic relations are much below the actual potential, one of the lowest for Pakistan in the region. The Syrian stand on Kashmir has progressively transformed into a more helpful and supportive one.  

The two countries have established an institutional framework for cooperation in the form of Joint Ministerial Commission (JMC). The 6th Session of Pak-Syria JMC is due to be held in Islamabad.
Pakistan-Tajikistan Relations

High-level visits:

There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.

From Pakistan
  • 2019– PM visited Bishkek to attend the SCO Heads of State Summit (June 2019). He held bilateral meetings with Tajik President.

  • 2019– Prime Minister met with the Tajik President on the sidelines of the One Belt One Road Forum held in Beijing on 26-27thApril 2019.

  • 2018-The Foreign Minister of Pakistan visited Dushanbe on 11-12 October 2018 to participate in the 17thSCO Council of Heads of Government meeting.

  • 2018-The President of Pakistan visited Dushanbe from 19-22 June 2018 and also attended the High-level International Conference, Water for Sustainable Development.

  • 2017-Former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif ‘s visited Tajikistan on 5-6 July 2017.

  • 2017-A tripartite meeting between Prime Minister of Pakistan, the Tajik President and Afghan President Ashraf Ghani was held on 6 July 2017 in Dushanbe.

  • 2016– Former Prime Minister, Mr. Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Dushanbe, Tajikistan on 11-12 May 2016 to attend the Launching Ceremony of CASA-1000.

  • 2015– Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Dushanbe on 9-10 June 2015 to attend International Water Conference and for a bilateral working visit.

From Tajikistan  

  • 2017-Tajik President Emomali Rahmon visited Islamabad on 28 February to 1 March 2017 to attend the 13thECO Summit.

  • 2015-The Tajik President paid a high-level state visit to Pakistan on 11-13 November 2015

Trade and Economic

Tajikistan, a small economy comprising of 8.5 million people with GDP of USD. 6.95 billion, is a major producer of electricity. Pakistan plans to import 1000 MW from Tajikistan through CASA -1000. It also produces silver, gold, uranium and tungsten.Agriculture comprises 27 % of the GDP of Tajikistan and cotton is major agricultural produce. Pakistan’s exports sugar, dairy products, fruit and vegetables (potato, onion & orange), rice, textile products and minerals to Tajikistan. Our imports from Tajikistan include cotton fiber, fruit and vegetable & unprocessed hides.  

Pakistan’s Trade with Tajikistan – US $ Million

Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 7.85 5.82 13.67
2016-17 1.70 14.19 15.89
Pakistan-Turkey Relations

Overview of bilateral relations

Pakistan and Turkey share unparalleled fraternal relations that are embedded in a shared historical, cultural and religious heritage. It’s a relationship that has transformed into a strong strategic partnership over the years. Both countries have supported each other in difficult times. Turkey has always supported Pakistan on our core national issues. Similarly Pakistan always reciprocates the same in all areas of mutual concern.

  1. Pak-Turk relations goes back to Turkish War of Independence when the Muslims of the northwestern British Raj sent financial aid to the declining Ottoman Empire, which was followed by the formation of the Turkish Republic and the Independence of Pakistan. As a result, Pakistan has enjoyed a positive image in Turkey and amongst Turks for many decades. The close cultural, historical and military relations have expanded into deepening economic relations as both countries seek to develop their economies.

  2. Turkey established diplomatic relations soon after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Turkey was among a few countries that quickly recognized Pakistan after its independence and supported its successful bid to become a member of the United Nations. Pakistan’s founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah expressed admiration for Turkey’s founding leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and also a desire to develop Pakistan on the Turkish model of modernism. Jinnah is honoured as a great leader in Turkey, and a major road of the Turkish capital Ankara, the Cinnah Caddesi is named after him, while roads in Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, and Larkana are named after Atatürk.

  3. There is similarity of views on most bilateral, regional and international issues of interest to both countries. Turkey supports Pakistan’s position on the Kashmir dispute. It supports Pakistan’s membership of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). Its support for Pakistan in the FATF is exemplary. It also supports Pakistan’s views on UN Security Council reform. Turkey was among the quickest responders with significant contribution during 2005 earthquake and 2010 floods in Pakistan.

  4. Pakistan too has supported Turkey on Northern Cyprus, FETO, etc. Pakistan was also among the first countries to express solidarity with the Turkish leadership when a coup was attempted in Turkey on 15 July 2016. Supreme Court of Pakistan, on 13 December 2018, gave a landmark judgment declaring FETO as Terrorist Organization and handing over of Pak-Turk Schools to Turkish Maarif Foundation.

  5. Pakistan-Turkey relations have been institutionalized in the form of the High-level Strategic Cooperation Council (HLSCC) and High Level Military Dialogue Group (HLMDG). There is a High Level Strategic Cooperation Council mechanism under which Summit level meetings are held every year, alternately in Turkey and Pakistan. Five rounds have been held so far and 6th round is expected to be held in Islamabad in 2019. More than 60 agreements/protocols/MoUs in various areas have been signed under the HLSCC.

  6. Total volume of bilateral trade is 322.94 million, with $132.28 million Pakistani exports, and $ 190.66 million imports). Turkish investments in Pakistan are reported as $ 2.7 billion. Numerous Turkish companies are working in Pakistan and have invested here including Arcelik, (Dawlance for $ 250 million in 2016); Zorlu Holding (56.4 MW wind energy project Jhimpir Sindh, two solar power projects of 100 MW and 200 MW at Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park); M/s Hayat Kimya ($ 150 million in household products, including diapers); Al-Bayrak Group (Metrobus projects in Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad and Multan, major partner in Lahore Solid Waste Management project).

  7. There is a significant number of Pakistani community living in Turkey which play an important role in strengthening bilateral relations especially between people to people contacts.

  8. Following cities of Pakistan and Turkey have also been declared as sister cities:
  • Istanbul – Lahore
  • Bursa – Multan
  • Islamabad – Ankara
  • Multan – Konya
Pakistan-Turkmenistan Relations
Both Pakistan and Turkmenistan enjoy close and cordial relations since latter’s independence. Pakistan established its diplomatic presence in Turkmenistan in 1991. Both countries closely cooperate at multilateral fora. However, due to its policy of ‘Permanent Neutrality’, Turkmenistan does not sides either with Pakistan or India on the Jammu & Kashmir Issue. It refrains from commenting on regional and global issues.

High-level visits:

There are frequent high-level exchanges of visits to and from Turkmenistan.

From Pakistan
  • 2018– Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Shahid Khaqan Abbasi visited Turkmenistan on 22-23 February 2018 to attend the link-up ceremony of TAPI pipeline and associated projects.

  • 2017– President of Pakistan visited Ashgabat to attend the opening ceremony of the V-Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games on 17 September 2017.

  • 2016– The former Prime Minister led the Pakistani delegation on 25-26 November, 2016 to the first ever Global Conference on Sustainable Transport at Ashgabat.

  • 2015– Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif visited Turkmenistan on 12-13 December 2015 to attend the International Conference on Neutrality and for the ground breaking ceremony of (TAPI) Gas Pipeline Project.

From Turkmenistan

  • 2019– Turkmen Foreign Minister visited Pakistan on 12thMarch to hold 2nd session of BPC and signed 5 MoUs/Agreements.

  • 2017– The President of Turkmenistan H.E. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov visited Islamabad on 28 February to 1 March 2017 to attend the 13thECO Summit.

  • 2016– President of Turkmenistan, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, paid an official visit to Pakistan on 16-17 March 2016.

Trade and Economic:

At the end of financial year closing in December 2017, Turkmenistan’s total GDP (PPP) was recorded as $103.7 billion with GDP Per Capita of $18,200. During the same period its Foreign Trade was $ 12.029 billion.Turkmenistan imports from Pakistan include rice (all sorts), fruits, vegetables, synthetic fabrics, animal and vegetable fats, Miscellaneous manufactured articles including handicrafts. Pakistan’s imports from Turkmenistan mostly comprise of raw cotton, crude minerals, waste cotton, petroleum products, chemical materials and products.

Pakistan’s Trade with Turkmenistan – US $ Million

Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 2.24 23.18 25.42
2016-17 3.34 22.77 23.18
Pakistan-Thailand Relations

Pakistan and Thailand enjoy cordial relationship marked by close cooperation and understanding in areas of mutual interest. Diplomatic ties were established in October 1951. The cultural link can be traced back to more than two millennia to the time of the Buddhist Gandhara civilization. Taxila has long been known to the Thais as the centre of knowledge of Buddhism. Pakistan recognizes Thailand as an important ASEAN country, located at the heart of Southeast Asia which can serve as a hub for trade, investments and communications. Thailand has been an important supporter of Pakistan in its bid for Full Dialogue Partnership with ASEAN.

Both countries have established mechanisms of Bilateral Political Consultations and Joint Economic Commission to overview bilateral relations and explore the possibilities of further cooperation. The Joint Trade Committee was established to facilitate preliminary work of Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Pakistan and Philippines. As follow-up, eight rounds of negotiations have taken place between the two countries, the last one was in August 2017.
Pakistan-Ukraine Relations

Pakistan recognized Ukraine immediately after its independence on 31December 1991. Diplomatic relations were established in March 1992. Pakistan opened its resident Mission in Kyiv in 1997 while Ukraine opened its Embassy in Islamabad in March 1998. Since the establishment of diplomatic ties, Pakistan and Ukraine have been enjoying friendly and cooperative relations.
Bilateral Political Consultations

  1. An MoU on Bilateral Political Consultations between the two countries was signed in March 2005. The 6th round of the Bilateral Consultations was held in Kyiv on 6 June 2016. The next round will be held in Islamabad on mutually agreed dates.
  1. Both the countries have entered into a number of Agreements including on; Trade and Economic Cooperation, Establishment of Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation and Avoidance of Double Taxation etc. Several bilateral agreements are currently at various stages of negotiations, including Promotion & Reciprocal Protection of Investment, Air Services Agreement, Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Education, Agreement on Equivalence of Degrees, and Visa Abolition Agreement for Diplomatic and Official Passport Holders.

Parliamentary Cooperation

  1. The initiative to bring parliamentarians of both countries closer by enhancing parliamentary interactions to strengthen bilateral relations was materialized by the end of 2013. Pakistan Friendship Group in Ukrainian Parliament and a Ukrainian Friendship Group in Pakistani Parliament were established.
  1. Both countries have also formed Parliamentary Friendships Groups in their respective parliaments to further improve bilateral parliamentary cooperation between the two countries.

Economic and Trade Relations:
  1. Over the years, the Pakistan-Ukraine bilateral trade has steadily grown. In 2018 total bilateral trade was US $ 165.23 million. Pakistan’s exports to Ukraine were US $ 59.6 million, while imports from Ukraine were US $ 105.64 million.

  2. In May 2007, our Minister for Petroleum & Natural Resources visited Ukraine and signed a Protocol of Intent on Cooperation between the Petroleum Ministries of the two countries.
  1. An Agreement for the Establishment of Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation was signed between the two countries on 25 July 2012 in Kyiv, Ukraine. The first session of the Joint Commission is expected to be held in the first quarter of 2020.
  1. To enhance direct links between the business community of the two countries, a Pakistan-Ukraine Business Council (PUBC) has been established both in the Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry; FPCCI (in 2011) and the Ukraine Chamber of Commerce and Industry; UCCI (in March 2012).
Defence Cooperation
  1. Defence cooperation with Ukraine is the hallmark of our bilateral relations. The Agreement on Mutual Protection of Classified Information and an MoU on Military and Defence Production Cooperation between Pakistan and Ukraine were signed in November 2006. In pursuance of the MoU, the Pakistan-Ukraine Joint Commission on Military and Defence Production Cooperation was established in 2008. The inaugural meeting of the Commission was held on 08 October 2009 in Pakistan. In May 2013, Brig Kazim Mustehsan, former Defence Attaché at the Embassy at Kyiv has been awarded the Ukrainian Air Force Medal for enhancing relations between PAF and Ukrainian Air Force.
Educational and Cultural Cooperation
  1. Around 300-400 Pakistani students are pursuing their studies in medicine, engineering and information technology in various Ukrainian universities. As regards the legal framework of bilateral cooperation between the two countries in field of education, the Agreements on Cooperation in the Field of Education and Agreement on Equivalence of Degrees and Academic Titles are under discussion by both sides.
  1. The MoU of cooperation between University of Agriculture Faisalabad and Podilya Agriculture University of Ukraine was signed in December 2014.

Pakistani community
  1. The size of Pakistani community in Ukraine is very small (around 1300-1500). Majority of the Pakistani community are engaged in running small scale businesses of textile, leather etc.
Pakistan-Vietnam Relations

On November 8, 1972, Viet Nam and Pakistan established formal diplomatic relations. In 1973, Pakistan established resident Embassy in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Pakistan and Viet Nam enjoy cordial relations based on mutual respect and joint efforts to enhance economic and commercial interaction between the two countries. Bilateral trade between the two countries is on upward trajectory. So far, 12 MoUs/Agreements have been signed..

Three mechanisms of Bilateral Political Consultations, Joint Ministerial Commission and Joint Trade Commission have been established to further strengthen bilateral relations between the two countries. The fourth session of Joint Ministerial Commission was held in October 2017.
Pakistan -United Arab Emirates (UAE) Relations
Pakistan and UAE have close friendly ties. UAE is our most important trade and investment partner in the region and is home to our 1.6 million diaspora which is a source of $ 4.3 bn in remittances. High-level exchanges picked up since last year including the three visits of the Prime Minister to the Emirates and the visit of the Crown Prince to Pakistan on January 2019 and again in January 2020. Pakistan and the UAE have established mechanism of Joint Ministerial Commission and Bilateral Political Consultations and have strong defence relations. The Inaugural Session of the BPC was convened on 2 March 2020 in Islamabad.

Leadership-level Interaction

  • Prime Minister Imran Khan paid official visit to UAE on 19 September 2018.
  • The Prime Minister paid second visit to UAE on 18 November 2018 at the invitation of the Crown Prince. He met the Crown Prince in Abu Dhabi and Prime Minister/ Ruler of Dubai in Dubai.
  • His Highness Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, paid a state visit to Pakistan on 6 January 2019. He was accompanied by a high-level delegation comprising cabinet members and senior officials. The visit helped in rejuvenating the bilateral relations between the two countries.
  • On the invitation of His Highness Sheikh Muhammad bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE, and Ruler of Dubai, Prime Minister Imran Khan visited the UAE on 10 February 2019, to participate in the World Government Summit 2019 as a key note speaker. He held delegation level talks with HH Sheikh Mohamed Bin Zayed.
  • The UAE Government sent its Foreign Minister together with the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of Saudi Arabia to Pakistan on 04 September 2019 to explain its position, discuss the ongoing situation in occupied Kashmir and to discuss future course of cooperation on this issue.
  • The Foreign Minister met his Emirati counterpart on the sidelines of 73rd UNGA in New York in September 2019.
  • The Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan again visited Pakistan in January 2020. During the visit, he called on the Prime Minister for a tete-a-tete followed by a luncheon.
  • In addition, frequent exchange of Ministerial visits and telephonic contacts between the leadership further consolidated these relations.

Economic Cooperation  

The UAE remains Pakistan’s largest trading partner in the MENA region. Owing to huge imports of Oil and Oil based products from UAE, the balance of bilateral trade usually remains tilted in favour of the UAE.  Around 60-70% of the import from UAE is concentrated in Oil and Oil based products and remaining comprises of vehicles, machinery, chemicals and metals etc. whereas, Pakistan’s major exports are concentrated in food and textile group products. Yearly time series of Pak-UAE bilateral trade is as follows:  
Value in US$ million
Year Exports Imports Total
2016-17 1,063.02 5,165.64 6228.66
2017-18 1,379.00 7,182.00 8561.00
2018-19 1,382.509 8,869.304 10,251.813
Source: State bank of Pakistan
Brief on
Pakistan – UK Bilateral Relations


Pakistan and the UK enjoy deep-rooted relations, which are based on shared history and experiences, reinforced by strong people-to-people contacts. A robust partnership with the UK is a key pillar of Pakistan’s Foreign Policy. With an annual bilateral trade volume of GBP 1,953 million (2018) and over 100 British companies operating in Pakistan, the UK has emerged as Pakistan’s second largest (after Germany) trading and investment partner in Europe. The UK is also one of Pakistan’s leading development partners. DFID’s programme for Pakistan is its largest in the world.
  1. A strong partnership between Pakistan and the UK remains important in promoting and sustaining peace, security and stability in the wider region. Specifically, the two countries have common interests and stakes in securing peace and security in Afghanistan. The Conservative party, upon assuming power in May 2015, had expressed desire to strengthen relations with Pakistan. Since then, ties in all fields have expanded. Boris Johnson visited Pakistan as the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs in November 2016.Duke and Duchess of Cambridge visited Pakistan in October 2019.
  1. Prime Minister Boris Johnson-led Conservative Party has won the mandate to form majority government in 12 December 2019 general elections by winning 365 seats (total of 650 seats).15 British-Pakistani MPs have been elected, as compared to 12 in last term.
  1. Bilateral relations between Pakistan and the UK are governed by the institutional mechanism and framework known as the “Enhanced Strategic Dialogue,” established during the visit of UK Prime Minister David Cameron to Pakistan in April 2011.

  1. Parliamentary cooperation between Pakistan and UK takes place through: (i) Parliamentary Friendship Groups; (ii) the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA); and (iii) direct linkages between parliamentarians.

Bilateral Trade and Investment

  1. In 2018, Pakistan-UK bilateral trade stood at GBP 1.95 billion, with Pakistan’s exports of GBP 23 billion and imports of GBP 722 million.
  1. The UK is the second largest overseas investor in Pakistan with investments reaching GBP 1,678 million in last ten years. Key sectors for UK investment in Pakistan are financial services, oil and gas exploration, petroleum refining, electricity generation, pharmaceutical, publishing, industrial chemicals and cement. The net flow of FDI from the UK is on decline but it still remains the largest investor among the EU member states and fifth largest in the world.

Culture and Education
  1. The UK government has tripled the number of Chevening Scholarships for Pakistani students to 72. The Punjab government has concluded several MoUs on cooperation with the museums and other cultural institutions in the UK.

Pakistani Diaspora

  1. The United Kingdom has the largest Pakistani Diaspora in Europe, estimated at around 1.5 million and the largest ethnic Muslim group in the UK. There are 15 Pakistan origin members in the British Parliament (in the House of Lords in the House of Commons). In addition, there are over 300 Mayors and Councillors throughout the UK, including the Mayor of London.
Pakistan – U.S. Relations

Pakistan’s relations with the United States have always figured prominently in our foreign policy architecture. This relationship spanning almost seven decades is robust and wide ranging, driven by cooperation in diverse areas and rooted in shared values and common interests.


  1. Prime Minister Imran Khan’s official working visit to the United States in July 2019 at the invitation of the U.S. President set the tone for a revived engagement based on mutual trust and respect. There is a mutual desire to deepen economic engagement and enhance bilateral trade and investment between the two countries. Pakistan looks forward to work with the new Administration to further strengthen the long-standing partnership between the two countries. There has already been an exchange of messages between Prime Minister Imran Khan and President Biden.


  1. There has been convergence between the two countries on finding a peaceful resolution of Afghan conflict. Working together, Pakistan and the United States have achieved significant progress in the Afghan peace process.


  1. United States is Pakistan’s second largest export market, after EU, accounting for nearly 17% percent of our total exports, primarily consisting of textiles and apparel. During the financial year 2019-2020, the total trade between Pakistan and the U.S. amounted to US $ 6.19 billion. Pakistan enjoyed a trade surplus with the U.S. during this year as well. Out of total trade volume, Pakistan’s exports amounted to US$ 3.7 billion while the imports from the U.S. stood at US$ 2.4 billion (Source: FBR). The U.S. is one of the major foreign investors in Pakistan. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is primarily focused on the Food & Beverages, Chemicals, Financial business, Oil & Gas exploration, cement, construction, communication and electronic sectors of Pakistan. Over 65 U.S. companies are running profitable businesses in Pakistan.


  1. Cooperation between Pakistan and the United States in the field of Education, Science and Technology (EST) is an important element in shifting the current security-centric focus of this relationship to a multidimensional partnership between the two countries. The United States has long been the destination of choice for Pakistani students seeking higher education. The number of Pakistani students studying at American universities is rising and currently there are around 8,000 Pakistani students in the U.S. Pakistan is also the beneficiary of the U.S. government’s largest bilateral Fulbright scholarship program. The U.S. also supports collaboration between American and Pakistani universities via State Department grants.


  1. The Pakistani-American Diaspora is diverse and vibrant community that is recognized as an increasingly important part of the American society with substantial increase in the past two years. The community has been one of the strongest bridges strengthening the bilateral relationship between our two countries. Pakistani Diaspora has played an important part in the economic development of U.S. and with passage of time they are becoming better integrated to make an even more useful contribution to the U.S. economy and society.
Pakistan – Uzbekistan Relations

Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Uzbekistan havesteadily improved during the last decade with focus on infrastructure development and connectivity. Uzbekistan supported Pakistan’s full membership of SCO and both sides have also traditionally supported each other candidatures in the UN and other international organizations.

High-level visits:

There are frequent exchanges of high-level visits.

From Pakistan

  • 2019-Prime Minister of Pakistan met with the President of Uzbekistan on the sidelines of the OBOR Forum in Beijing on 26-27th April 2019.

  • 2019-Both Pakistani and Uzbek Foreign Ministers met on the sidelines of Munich Security Conference in February 2019.

  • 2018- Former Foreign Minister of Pakistan visited Tashkent on 26-27 March 2018 to participate in International Conference on Afghanistan-Peace Process, Security Cooperation and Regional Connectivity.

  • 2017- The then National Security Advisor, Lt. Gen. Nasser Khan Janjua, attended the International Conference on Regional Security and Development, in Samarkand on 10-11 November 2017.

  • 2016- Former SAPM, Syed Tariq Fatemi, led Pakistan’s delegation to the 43rd Session of Council of Foreign Ministers (CFM) of the OIC held in Tashkent in October 2016.

  • 2016-Former President of Pakistan, Mr. Mamnoon Hussain visited Uzbekistan to participate in SCO Summit in June 2016. He also met with his Uzbek counterpart, late President Islam Karimov.

From Uzbekistan

  1. 2019-During last week of May 2019, the Uzbek Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Elyor Ganiev led a delegation to Islamabad to discuss possibility of a proposed railway link between Mazar-i-Sharif, Kabul and Peshawar.

  2. 2018-Uzbek Foreign Minister visited Islamabad on 1st November 2018 to hold delegation level talks with the Foreign Minister. He also called on the Prime Minister.

  3. 2018-Uzbek Foreign Minister Mr. Kamilov Abdulaziz Khafizovich visited Islamabad in February 2018, to personally extend an invitation to Foreign Minister of Pakistan for the “Tashkent Conference on Afghanistan”, held on 26-27 March 2018.

  4. 2017-Then Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan, Mr. Ulugbek Rozikulov, participated in 13th ECO Summit held in Islamabad on in March 2017.

Trade and Economic:

Pakistan’s exports to Uzbekistan are pharmaceuticals, services, medical equipment, chemical products and citrus fruits etc. Pakistan’s imports from Uzbekistan include raw hide, horticultural products, fertilizers etc. Lately, Uzbek business community has expressed their increased interest in Pakistani market and a delegation also participated in TEXPO-2019.  

Pakistan’s Trade with Uzbekistan – US $ Million

Year Exports Imports Total
2017-18 65 35 100
2016-17 35
Pakistan –Yemen Relations
Pakistan’s long-standing relations with Yemen are based on strong goodwill between our people, common religious and cultural affinities as well as similarities of perception on international and regional issues. It would be pertinent to highlight that there is utmost respect for Pakistanis all across the political and sectarian divide in Yemen. This was amply demonstrated by all Yemeni authorities during the expeditious and successful evacuation of Pakistani nationals following GCC-coalition air strike on 27 March 2015. Yemen has provided consistent support to the cause of Jammu & Kashmir and has supported Pakistan’s candidatures in various organizations, including membership of UN Security Council and Human Rights Council.

  High level exchanges between Pakistan and Yemen have been very low ever since the eruption of war in 2015. Prime Minister Mr. Nawaz Sharif met President Abd Rabuh Mansoor Hadi, during his visit to the KSA in April 2015, as the latter was in exile there. Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Yemen paid an official visit to Pakistan from 12-14 March 2017.  

Ever since the eruption of war in Yemen, bilateral trade between Pakistan and Yemen has remained very low. Established mechanisms of Bilateral Political Consultation and Joint Ministerial Commission have also come to a halt.
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