• In first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important center of Hinduism, which was followed by Buddhism.
  • Buddhism was taken over by Shaivism in the ninth century.
  • Islam took its roots in Kashmir during 13th to 15th centuries and led to eventual decline of the Shaivism.
  • In 1339, Shah Mir became first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, setting up the Shah Mir dynasty.
  • For next five centuries, Muslims ruled Kashmir, including the Mughal Empire from 1586 until 1751 and the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1747 until 1819.
  • In 1819, the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh annexed Kashmir.
  • In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War and upon purchase of the region from the British under Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir.
  • The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947, when the former princely state was annexed by India against the principle of division set forth for rest of India and princely states.

Demography of Kashmir

  • Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu was constituted between 1820 and 1858 and was “somewhat artificial in composition and it did not develop a fully coherent identity, partly due to its disparate origins and partly due to autocratic rule on fringes of Empire.”
  • It combined disparate regions, religions, and ethnicities.
    • To the east, Ladakh was ethnically and culturally Tibetan and practiced Buddhism.
    • To the south, Jammu had a mixed population of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs with overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim. However, there was also a small but influential Hindu minority, the Kashmiri brahmins or pandits.
    • To the northeast, sparsely populated Baltistan had a population ethnically related to Ladakh, but which practiced Shi’a Islam.
    • To the north, sparsely populated, Gilgit Agency, was an area of diverse, mostly Shi’a groups.
    • To the west, Punch was Muslim, but of different ethnicity than the Kashmir valley.
    • Many Kashmiri Muslims migrated from the Valley to Punjab due to famine and policies of Dogra rulers.
  • In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, the population of the princely state of Kashmir was 2,905,578. Of these 2,154,695 were Muslims, 689,073 Hindus, 25,828 Sikhs, and 35,047 Buddhists.
  • The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted around 40% of the population.
  • In the Kashmir Valley, the Hindus represented “only 524 in every 10,000 of the population (5.24%), and in the frontier wazarats of Ladhakh and Gilgit only 94 out of every 10,000 persons (0.94%).
  • In the same Census of 1901, in the Kashmir Valley, the total population was recorded to be 1,157,394 of which the Muslim population was 1,083,766, or 93.6%.
  • In the 1941 Census of British India, Muslims accounted for 93.6% of the population of the Kashmir Valley and the Hindus constituted 4%.
  • Among the Muslims of the Kashmir province within the princely state, four divisions were recorded: “Shaikhs, Saiyids, Mughals, and Pathans.
  • Main tribes of Muslims in the princely state are the Butts, Dar, Lone, Jat, Gujjar, Rajput, Sudhan and Khatri. A small number of Butts, Dar and Lone use the title Khawaja and the Khatri use the title Shaikh the Gujjar use the title of Chaudhary. All these tribes are indigenous of the princely state which converted to Islam from Hinduism during its arrival in region.
  • Among Hindus of Jammu province, the most important castes recorded in the census were “Brahmans (186,000), the Rajputs (167,000), the Khattris (48,000) and the Thakkars (93,000).

Quaid-e-Azam’s Visits to Kashmir

  • The number of Quaid’s visits to Kashmir remain uncertain as it is claimed to be three or four visits at places. However, Quaid visited between 1926 to 1944.
  • First visit in 1926, was a private one to spend few holidays. The Quaid used this visit to assess socio-economic condition of the people of Kashmir under the rule of Maharaja Hari Singh.
  • Later in same year, the Quaid got a special resolution passed in All India Muslim League Working Committee session held in Lahore. The unanimous resolution drew attention of the Maharajah’s Government towards educational and economic backwardness of the Muslims of Kashmir and requested him to improve living standard of the Muslims, forming bulk of the population.
  • On his second visit to Kashmir in 1929, Quaid met with some salient leaders of the state.
  • The first two visits remained low profile and were meant to watch and assess the situation there.
  • The Quaid visited Kashmir again in 1936, was more distinct and well planned. He was given a landmark reception by the united Kashmiri leadership of Muslim Conference, with Sheikh Abdullah and Chudhary Ghulam Abbas in the forefront.
  • In 1944, during hisfourth visit, Quiad-e-Azam attended the annual session of the Muslim Conference in the Jamia Masjid Srinagar on 17th June. He met leadership of all political parties in Kashmir and attended various functions. He also met with workers, students, lawyers, common people and journalists.

Youm-e-Shuhada-e-Kashmir. On 13th Jul 1931, the people of Kashmir held their first organized protest against Maharajah Hari Singh’s cruelty. On this day, the troops of Dogra Maharaja killed 22 Kashmiris outside Central Jail. Kashmiri’s celebrate this day as Yaum-e-Shuhada-e-Kashmir

Glancy Commission

  • After the 1931 massacre, Maharaja appointed a commission under BJ Glancy, an English officer of Foreign Affairs Ministry of British Indian Government. The Glancy Commission, submitted its report to Maharaja on March 22, 1932.
  • The commission recommended establishment of a Legislative Assembly (LA), called the Praja Sabha comprising 75 members (15 official representatives, 33 elected representatives and remaining Maharaja’s nominees). Of the 33 elected seats, 21 would be reserved for Muslims, 10 for Hindus and 2 for Sikhs.
  • Maharaja accepted these recommendations but delayed implementation, eventually leading to protests in 1934.
  • The Maharaja subsequently granted a constitution providing a legislative assembly for the people, but it was powerless.

The Muslim / National Conference

  • All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference was founded by Sheikh Abdullah and Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas in 1932 in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • On 11th June 1939, a special convention of the Muslim Conference, held at Pather Masjid Srinagar, under the chairmanship of Mr. G. M. Sadiq, ratified the decision of the General Council to change Muslim conference into National Conference.
  • During the convention, Chaudhary Ghulam Abbas said, “It is time that we give up the attire of an infant because our movement has reached its exuberant youth. We have to clad it according to its growth and coming up of age”.
  • On 13th Jun 1941, Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas left the National Conference and revived the old Muslim Conference with breakaway factions.

The State Elections. Under the Glancy Commission recommendation, 3 x State elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir

  • 1st State Elections (1934). In Sep 1934 first elections were held in Kashmir under Maharaja. The Muslim Conference won 14 of the 21 seats reserved for Muslims. The elections were a part of the process elsewhere in India where INC won the elections
  • 2nd State Election-1938. In May 1938, the Muslim conference won all 19 contested seats in 2nd State Elections. Two independent candidates that won were said to have joined the Muslim conference afterwards.
  • 3rd State Election-1947. In Jan 1947, the national conference boycotted the elections, and the Muslim conference won 16 of the 21 Muslim seats.

Quit Kashmir Campaign

  • On 9th May 1946, National Conference launched the “Quit Kashmir” campaign demanding abrogation of the Treaty of Amritsar and restoration of sovereignty to the people of Kashmir and eventually to the Azad Kashmir movement.
  • Sheikh Abdullah launched the Quit Kashmir movement against the Maharaja; he was arrested and charged with sedition.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru attempted to go to Kashmir to defend Abdullah in court but was arrested and forced to leave the State.

RSS/ Akali Dal Atrocities

  • Active involvement of RSS, Akali dal, Sikh jathas and other fundamentalist Hindus in Kashmir became visible.
  • Akali Dal leader Harman Singh and RSS leader Master Tara Singh addressed a public meeting under the auspices of Singh Sabha. They made highly inflammatory speeches against Muslims.

Resolution on Ilhaq-e-Pakistan

  • On 19th Jul 1947, All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference had organised a convention in Srinagar at Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan’s residence and passed a resolution for merging Kashmir with Pakistan in line with wishes of Kashmiris.
  • It was a historic moment since it gave the liberation movement a clear objective and goal.

Standstill Agreement

  • On 12th Aug 1947, Maharaja offered Standstill Agreement to both Pakistan and India.
  • The form of the agreement was bilateral between a dominion and a princely state. The agreement stated:-

“All the administrative arrangements then existing between the British Crown and the state would continue unaltered between the signatory dominion (India or Pakistan) and the princely state, until new arrangements were made”




Radcliffe Award (17 Aug 1947)

  • In the words of Quaid-i-Azam, the Radcliff Award was an unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.
  • The renowned British writer, Alastair Lamb in his book, ‘Kashmir, a disputed legacy’, has also established a sinister collusion between Mountbatten and the Indian Congress leadership as a result of which the Boundary Commission awarded Gurdaspur to India which culminated in the Indian intervention in Jammu and Kashmir on October 27, 1947.

Jammu Massacre (Aug – Nov 1947)

  • Around 250,000-300,000 Muslims were killed with military precision by Rashtriya Swayamsevak Singh (RSS) elements and Sikh Jathas in collusion with state forces.
  • The operation got a fillip immediately after a fleeing Maharaja Hari Singh and his wife reached Jammu on 26 October 1947.
  • The Hindu Dogra ruler’s main aim was to change the demographic composition of the region by eliminating the Muslim population.

Revolt in Poonch and No Tax movement (4 Sep 1947)

  • An uprising against the Maharaja broke out in Poonch, an area bordering the Rawalpindi division of the West Punjab.
  • Maharaja’s administration started levying punitive taxes on the peasantry which provoked a local revolt and the administration resorted to brutal suppression.
  • Muslims complained that the arms deposited by them were being distributed by the police amongst Hindu and Sikh families for self-defence, raising communal fears and tensions.
  • They were thoroughly convinced that there was a conspiracy b/w the State forces and the RSS.
  • The area’s population, full of recently demobilized soldiers from the Second World War, rebelled against the Maharaja’s forces.

Indian Direct Military Intervention in Kashmir (17 Oct 1947)

  • The biggest of lies related to the Kashmir dispute is that Indian Army arrived in Kashmir only after the tribals intrusion on 22nd October 1947. 7
  • Reality is that Indian Army was present in different parts of Jammu and Kashmir on 17th October 1947.
  • Troops of “The First Sikh Regiment of Patiala State” had been sent to the state of Jammu and Kashmir in first two weeks of October and were present in Srinagar, Jammu and Uri by 17th October 1947. By then, these Patiala forces were legally a part of the Indian Army.

Entry of Tribals into the Conflict (22 Oct 1947)

  • Pro-Pakistan members of the Maharaja’s army rebelled at Domel (Muzaffarabad) and took control of the Jhelum river bridge.
  • Thousands of Pashtuns from Pakistan’s North West Frontier Province entered Kashmir to fight along with the Poonch freedom fighters, incensed by atrocities against fellow Muslims in Poonch and Jammu.
  • They attacked Muzaffarabad and then advanced towards East to capture Baramula. Some of the Tribals reached outskirts of Sirinagar as well.

Provisional Government of Azad Jammu & Kashmir Established and Liberation of Bhimber

  • On 24 Oct 1947, following the victory in Poonch, the pro-Pakistan chieftains of the western Jammu districts of Muzaffarabad, Poonch and Mirpur proclaimed a provisional Azad Jammu and Kashmir government in Pallandri, with Sardar Mohammad Ibrahim Khan as its founding president.
  • Same day Bhimber also fell to Azad Forces.

Nehru’s Speech on All India Radio (2 Nov 1947)

“We are anxious not to finalize anything in a moment of crisis and without the fullest opportunity to be given to the people of Kashmir to have their say. It is for them ultimately to decide. And let me make it clear that it has been our policy that where there is a dispute about the accession of a state to either Dominion, the accession must be made by the people of that state. It is in accordance with this policy that we have added a proviso to the Instrument of Accession of Kashmir”.




Indian Dash to United Nations (1 January 1948)

  • Due to military reverses, India rushed to United Nations and placed the Jammu & Kashmir problem before the world body.
  • The intention was to ask the world community to acknowledge Pakistani aggression on the people of J&K and to force Pakistan to withdraw its troops from the state so that a final solution to the question of the state’s accession could be found.

UNSC Resolution 38 (17 January 1948)

  • 1st UNSC resolution on J&K was submitted by the representative of Belgium and was adopted by the Security Council with 9 – 0 vote.
  • The resolution called upon the governments of India and Pakistan to refrain from aggravating the situation in Kashmir in any way and deploy any means at their disposal to improve the situation.

UNSC Resolution 39 (20 January 1948)

  • Another UNSC resolution was submitted by Belgian representative and was adopted by the Security Council with 9 – 0 vote on 20 January 1948.
  • UNSC offered to assist in the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir Conflict by establishing the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to investigate and mediate the dispute.
  • One member each was to be nominated by India and Pakistan, while 3rd member was to be nominated by other two chosen members of the commission.
  • The commission was to write a joint letter advising the Security Council on what course of action would be best to help further peace in the region.
  • The commission was to “investigate the facts” and to “carry out directions” given by the Security Council.
  • The investigations were to address the allegations made by India in its letter of 1 January 1948, regarding the situation in Jammu and Kashmir. Secondly they were to address, when the “Security Council so directs”, other issues raised by Pakistan in its submission on the 15 January 1948.
  • The Commission did not come into fruition until May 1948.

UNSC Resolution 47 (21 April 1948)

  • Representatives of Belgium, Canada, China, Columbia, United Kingdom and United States of America jointly submitted another resolution on J&K.
  • It was adopted by the Security Council with 7 – 0 vote.
  • The resolution called for a three-step process for the resolution of the dispute:-

o Pakistani withdrawal of its nationals.

o India to reduce its troops to minimum level.

o Arrangements be made for a plebiscite.

  • The UN Commission, which was proposed in January, was enlarged from three to five members under the name of United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to recommend various measures including the use of observers to stop the fighting.
  • India and Pakistan rejected the resolution but promised to work with the Commission.

Indo Pak Kashmir War (21 April 1948)

  • In April 1948, General Gracey was convinced by Jinnah to send troops into Kashmir.
  • By that time, Pakistan had procured some arms from Britain, writes Brian Cloughley in his book, A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections (2000).

UNSC Resolution 51 (3 June 1948)

  • Representative of Syria submitted another resolution on Kashmir in UNSC.
  • It was adopted by the Security Council with 8 – 0 vote.
  • Resolution 51 reaffirmed earlier resolutions on the J&K dispute.
  • It further directed the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to accomplish its duties as assigned to it by the resolution 47(1948).

Arrival of UNCIP in Sub-Continent (5 July 1948)

  • The Commission broached the possibility of partition.
  • It was considered favourably by India but was rejected by Pakistan.

UN Brokered Ceasefire (1 January 1949)

  • The UN brokered ceasefire between India and Pakistan left India in control of most of the valley.
  • Present cease-fire line, recognized by the international community, divides the state into two parts, leaving 63 percent of the area under Indian occupation, including the Srinagar Valley, Jammu and Ladakh.
  • The remaining 37% is present day Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.

The Karachi Agreement (27 Jul 1949)

  • India and Pakistan signed the Karachi Agreement establishing a ceasefire line to be supervised by the military observers.
  • These observers, under the command of the Military Adviser, formed the nucleus of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP).
  • The signatories were:
    • Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, on behalf of India
    • Maj Gen W J Cawthorn, on behalf of Pakistan
    • Hernando Samper and M Delvoie, on behalf of the UNCIP.
  • The 830 kilometers long ceasefire line established in the agreement started from a southern most point just west of the Chenab river in Jammu.
  • It ran in a rough arc northwards and then north-eastwards to the map coordinate NJ9842, about 19 km north of the Shyok river.

UNCIP Adopts 1st Resolution on Kashmir (13 August 1948)

  • After discussions with both the governments, the Commission unanimously adopted a three-part resolution, amending and amplifying the UN Resolution 47, wherein:-
  • Part I dealt with ceasefire, calling for a complete cessation of hostilities.
  • Part II dealt with a truce agreement. It asked for a complete withdrawal of Pakistan’s fighting forces, including the army, tribes and other Pakistani nationals, and stated that the evacuated territory would be administered by local authorities under the surveillance of the Commission. Following the Pakistani withdrawal, India was expected to withdraw the “bulk of its forces” reducing them to the minimum level required for maintaining law and order.
  • Part III stated that, after the acceptance of the truce agreement, the two countries would enter into consultation with the Commission for settling the future of the state in accordance with the will of the people.

Promulgation of Article 370 of Indian Constitution (17 October 1949)

  • The Indian Constituent Assembly adopted Article 370 of the Constitution which came into effect on 26 January 1950.
  • The article ensured a special status and internal autonomy for J&K, with Indian jurisdiction in Kashmir limited to the three areas agreed in the Instrument of Accession: defence, foreign affairs and communications.

UNSC Resolution 80 (14 March 1950)

  • Representatives of Cuba, Norway, United Kingdom and United States submitted another resolution on Kashmir.
  • It was adopted by the Security Council with 8 – 0 vote.
  • The Council appointed a United Nations Representative to assist in:-
  • Preparations and implementation of the demilitarization program.
  • Advise the Governments of India and Pakistan as well as those of the Council, to exercise all of the power and responsibilities of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan.
  • Arrange for the Plebiscite Administrator (Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz) to assume all the functions assigned to him at the appropriate stage of demilitarization and to report to the Council as he deemed appropriate.

UNSC Resolution 91 (30 March 1951)

  • Submitted by the representatives of United Kingdom and United States and adopted by the Security Council with 8 – 0 vote.
  • Following the termination of UNCIP, the Security Council decided that UNMOGIP should continue to supervise the ceasefire in Kashmir.
  • UNMOGIP’s functions were to observe and report, investigate complaints of ceasefire violations and submit its finding to each party and to the Secretary General.
  • It rejected elections as a substitute for a plebiscite to determine the future status of Kashmir and appointed a representative Dr. Frank P. Graham to effect demilitarization, which was unsuccessful.
  • It also identified that main point of difference of preparing the state of Jammu and Kashmir for holding of a plebiscite were:-
  • The procedure for and extent of demilitarization.
  • The degree of control over the exercise of the functions of government necessary to ensure a free and fair plebiscite.

Owen Dixon Report (15 September 1950)

  • Sir Owen Dixon, Judge (later CJ of the High Court of Australia) was appointed by the Security Council as the UN Representative on Kashmir.
  • He is the only one which came close to a solution and also exposed Nehru’s intransigence.
  • He proposed to redraw the boundaries of Kashmir on religious lines (he saw the river Chenab as a natural border) and plebiscite in the Valley while rejecting “an over-all plebiscite”. He assigned Ladakh to India, the Northern Areas and AJK to Pakistan and split on Jammu between the two.
  • Pakistan demurred at first, but agreed. It fell through because Nehru did not accept the conditions in which the plebiscite could be held; precisely the issue on which the UNCIP and Graham failed.

Nehru’s Reassurance (6 July 1951)

  • ‘Kashmir has been wrongly looked upon as a prize for India or Pakistan.
  • People seem to forget that Kashmir is not a commodity for sale or to be bartered.
  • It has an individual existence and its people must be the final arbiters of their future.
  • It is here today that a struggle is bearing fruit, not in the battlefield but in the minds of men’.

Elections in IOK (September – October 1951)

  • Elections were held for the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir, with 75 seats allocated to the IOK and 25 seats reserved for the AJK.
  • Sheikh Abdullah’s National Conference won all 75 seats in a rigged election. India said this made a referendum unnecessary.
  • The UN Security Council, however, passed Resolution 91 to the effect that such elections did not substitute a plebiscite.

Shaikh Abdullah speaks for accession to India (31 October 1951)

  • In his first speech to the assembly, Sheikh Abdullah argued for accession to India.

UNSC Resolution 96 (10 November 1951)

  • The resolution was adopted by nine votes to none.
  • Having received a report by Mr. Frank Graham, a basis for a program of demilitarization was noted with approval.
  • Accepted the principle that the accession of the State of Jammu and Kashmir should be determined by a free and impartial plebiscite under the auspices of the United Nations.




Signing of Delhi Agreement by Sheikh Abdullah with Indian Government (24 Jul 1952)

  • Sheikh Abdullah signed the Delhi Agreement with the Indian government on Centre-State relationship.
  • It provided for autonomy of the State within India and autonomy for regions within the State.
  • Besides reaching an agreement on citizenship, Indian flag, headship of the State and financial integration, the parties agreed to the Supreme Court jurisdiction in the following manner:- “It was agreed that the Supreme Court should have original jurisdiction in respect of disputes mentioned in Article 131 of the Constitution of India. It was further agreed that the Supreme Court should have jurisdiction in regard with the fundamental rights, which are to be agreed to by the State.”

Proposal of UN Representative, Frank P Graham (4 Sep 1952)

  • Graham Formula – De-militarization of the Area / Question of accession be decided through democratic method of free and impartial plebiscite under UN.

UNSC Resolution 98 (24 December 1952)

  • The resolution was adopted by 9-0 votes. Pakistan did not participate in the voting.
  • The resolution urged the Governments of India and Pakistan to enter into immediate negotiations under the auspices of the United Nations.
  • Representatives for India and Pakistan to reach an agreement on specific number of troops to remain on each side of the cease fire line at the end of the previously established period of demilitarization.
  • The suggested number was to be between 3,000 to 6,000 on the Pakistani side and 12,000 to 18,000 on the Indian side.

UNSC Resolution 122 (20 January 1957)

  • Australia, Cuba, United Kingdom and United States of America with 10-1 vote reaffirmed its 1951 resolution.
  • It stated that no action taken by the Constituent Assembly can be a substitute for a plebiscite in determining the final disposition of the state.
  • India’s Home Minister, Pundit Govind Ballabh Pant, during his visit to Srinagar, declared that the State of Jammu and Kashmir was an integral part of India and there can be no question of a plebiscite to determine its status afresh.

UNSC Resolution 123 (21 February 1957)

  • Adopted by the Security Council with 10-0 vote.
  • After the conflict over Jammu and Kashmir intensified, the council requested the President of the Security Council to visit the subcontinent and, along with the governments of India and Pakistan, examine any proposals which were likely to contribute to the resolution of the dispute.

Gunnar Jarring’s Report (29 April 1957)

  • The UN representative on Kashmir from Sweden presented his report on J&K situation.
  • He noted “The Council will, furthermore, be aware of the fact that the implementation of international agreements of an ad-hoc character, which has not been achieved fairly / speedily, may become progressively more difficult because the situation with which they were to cope has tendered to change.”

UNSC Resolution 126 (2 December 1957)

  • Certain amendments were introduced by the Representative of Sweden to the Joint Draft Resolution and adopted by the Security Council with 10-0 vote.
  • It was the last of three resolutions passed during 1957 to deal with the dispute between the governments of India and Pakistan over the territories of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It requested that the governments of India and Pakistan refrain from aggravating the situation, and instructed the United Nations Representative for India and Pakistan to visit the subcontinent and report to the council with recommended action toward further progress.

India Reneges from Pledge on Plebiscite (5 February 1964)

  • The Indian representative tells the Security Council, “I wish to make it clear on behalf of my government that in no circumstances we can agree to the holding of a plebiscite in Kashmir.”
  • Defense Minister, Kirshnan Menon, gives the reason: “Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan and no Indian Government responsible for agreeing to plebiscite would survive”.



Unrest in Kashmir

  • 3 January 1965: The Jammu and Kashmir National Conference dissolved itself and merged into the Indian National Congress, a centralizing strategy.
  • Kashmiri nationalists Amanullah Khan and Maqbool Bhat formed another Plebiscite Front with an armed wing called the Jammu and Kashmir National Liberation Front (NLF) in Azad Kashmir, with the objective of freeing Kashmir from Indian occupation

Operation Gibraltar

  • Due to increased incidents of violence in Kashmir Valley, Pakistan decided to launch Operation Gibraltar against the forced occupation of Indian forces.
  • Operation Gibraltar was the codename given to the strategy of Pakistan to support liberation struggle in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Pakistan specifically chose this name to draw a parallel to the Muslim invasion of Spain that was launched from the port of Gibraltar.

Operation Grand Slam

  • In order to keep operations limited to Kashmir, 12 Division launched the Operation Grand Slam aimed at capturing Akhnur with a view to launch further operations towards Rajauri, Naushehra or Jammu as feasible.
  • Indians launched attack across International Border on 6 September to relieve pressure.

1965 / Indo Pak war

  • The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India.
  • The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II.

UNSC Resolution 209 (4 September 1965)

  • UNSC resolution 209 adopted on September 4, 1965, with a deteriorating situation along the cease-fire line in Kashmir
  • The Council called upon both India and Pakistan to take all steps necessary to immediately cease fighting and return to their respective sides of the line.
  • The Council also called on the two governments to co-operate fully with the United Nations Military Observer Group in Pakistan and asked the Secretary-General to report back on the implementation of the resolution within three days.

UNSC Resolution 210 (6 September 1965)

  • UNSC resolution 210 adopted unanimously on September 6, 1965, after receiving a report by the Secretary-General on the developments in the situation in Kashmir, the Council called on the parties to cease hostilities in the entire area of conflict immediately and withdraw all armed personnel to the positions they held before August 5, 1965.
  • The Council requested the Secretary General do all he possibly could to give effect to the present resolution and resolution 209 as well as strengthening the United Nations Military Observer Group in Pakistan. The Council then decided to keep the issue under urgent and continuous review.

UNSC Resolution 211 (20 September 1965)

  • UNSC resolution 211 was adopted on September 20, 1965, the Council demanded that a cease-fire take effect at 0700 hours GMT on September 22 and that both forces withdraw to the positions held before August 5.
  • The Council requested the Secretary-General ensure the supervision of the cease-fire and called on all states to refrain from any action which might aggravate the situation.

UNSC Resolution 214 (27 September 1965)

  • UNSC resolution 214, adopted on September 27, 1965, after expressing concern that the cease-fire called for in resolutions 209, 210 and 211 (and agreed to by India and Pakistan) was not holding.
  • The Council demanded that the parties honor their commitment, cease-fire and withdraw all armed personnel.

UNSC Resolution 215 (5 November 1965)

  • UNSC resolution 215, adopted on November 5, 1965, the Council demanded that representatives of India and Pakistan meet with a representative of the Secretary-General to purpose schedules for the withdrawals.
  • The Council urged this meeting to take place as soon as possible and requested the Secretary-General to submit a report on compliance with this resolution.

Tashkent Declaration

  • The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on 10 January 1966 that resolved the IndoPakistani War of 1965. Peace had been achieved on 23 September by the intervention of the external powers who pushed the two nations to cease fire.
  • In 1966 the Indian opposition leader Jayaprakash wrote to Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi that India rules Kashmir by force.

Promulgation of AJK Act 1970

  • The first formal Constitution was drafted in 1970 and is commonly referred to as Act 1970 AJK.
  • The major constitutional changes in 1970, system of adult franchise was adopted and a democratic setup was introduced.
  • For the first time, the Legislative Assembly as well as President of Azad Jammu and Kashmir was also elected on the basis of adult franchise.
  • The Assembly consisted of 24 elected members and one co-opted lady member.

Formation of National Liberation Front

  • Kashmiri nationalists Amanullah Khan and Maqbool Bhat, along with Hashim Qureshi, in 1966, formed another Plebiscite Front in Azad Kashmir with an armed wing called the National Liberation Front (NLF), with the objective of liberating Kashmir from Indian occupation and then liberating the whole of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Later in 1976, Maqbool Bhat was arrested on his return to the Valley. Amanullah Khan moved to England and there NLF was renamed Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF).

Hijacking of an Indian Aero plane

  • An Indian Airlines plane, ‘Ganga’, enroute from Srinagar to New Delhi, was hijacked in January 1970 and diverted to Lahore and later blown up after allowing passengers to leave. Maqbool Butt claimed responsibility.

Indo Pak war 1971

  • The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dhaka on 16 December 1971.
  • This war started in March 1971 when civil war erupted in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) against the rulers of West Pakistan for their high-handedness.
  • The military ruler of Pakistan General Yahya Khan ordered action against the Bengali separatists.
  • India intervened in the civil war and actively supported the Bengali separatists who wanted separation from the West Pakistan.
  • East Pakistan became independent country of Bangladesh on December 16, 1971.
  • Hostilities between India and Pakistan continued till July 1972 when both the countries signed Shimla Agreement and vowed to settle their differences through peaceful means.

UNSC Resolution 307 (21 December 1971)

  • UNSC resolution 307 adopted on December 21, 1971, after hearing statements from India and Pakistan, the Council demanded that a durable cease-fire be observed until withdrawals could take place to respect the cease-fire line in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The Council also called for international assistance in the relief of suffering and rehabilitation of refugees as well as their return home and a request for the Secretary-General to keep the council informed on developments.
  • The Plebiscite Front was banned from participating in the State Assembly election in Feb 1972.

Simla Agreement (2 July 1972)

  • The Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Shimla, the capital city of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
  • The agreement was the result of resolve of both the countries to “put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations”.
  • It conceived the steps to be taken for further normalization of mutual relations and it also laid down the principles that should govern their future relations.



Kashmir Accord between Plebiscite Front and India

  • In return for Sheikh Abdullah’s release and reinstatement as Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, his deputy, Mirza Afzal Beg, signs an accord reiterating the State of Jammu and Kashmir as a constituent unit of India, without the condition for pre-1953 autonomy.
  • The Opposition Plebiscite Front drops demand for a referendum in return for extensive autonomy.
  • The Plebiscite Front was dissolved and renamed as National Conference. Sheikh Abdullah assumed the position of Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir after an 11-year gap.
  • The Indira–Sheikh Accord signed in 1975 between Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah and then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi, allowed the former to become Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir again after 22 years.


NLF Transformed into JKLF

  • The Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) is a political organization active in both Pakistan-administered and Indian-administered Kashmir.
  • It was founded by Amanullah Khan, while Maqbool Bhat is also credited as a co-founder. Originally a militant wing of the Plebiscite Front, it changed its name to JKLF in Birmingham, England on 29 May 1977.
  • Even though the JKLF has only Muslim members, it is notionally secular.
  • It continues to assert that a secular, independent Kashmir free of both India and Pakistan is its eventual goal.
  • It regards Pakistan as an ‘occupation power’ and carries out political struggle against it in Azad Kashmir.
  • It committed itself to a political struggle for achieving its objective of independence for the entire region of the former princely state.


Arrest and Subsequent Martyrdom of Numerous Leaders

  • Maqbool Butt passed BA in History and Political Science from University of Kashmir and MA Urdu Literature, from Peshawar University. He worked for some time as teacher and also a local journalist before becoming freedom fighter.
  • Ghulam Mohammad Shah and other National Conference assembly members defected to form a new government.
  • Jagmohan, a Hindu nationalist was appointed governor of Jammu and Kashmir and, dismissed Farooq Abdullah. Ghulam Mohammad Shah was 21 appointed as Chief Minister. Protests erupted and Shah imposed extended curfews.
  • Maqbool Butt was hanged in Tihar Jail in New Delhi in Feb 1984.


Siachen Conflict / 1984

  • The Siachen conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, was a military conflict between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir.
  • It is the unfinished agenda of Karachi Agreement as area north of NJ9842 was considered as glaciated wasteland and uninhabitable. Resultantly Ceasefire Line beyond NJ9842 was to be demarcated later.
  • The line of control (LoC) of 1972 between Pak and India was demarcated on the south of Siachen, at a grid point NJ9842. This zone was called as neutral zone.
  • Pakistan acknowledges disputed nature of this territory and claims its right to administer this area till final resolution of Kashmir through an internationally-supervised plebiscite in J & K. While India on the other hand claims this area as its integral part based on controversial treaty of accession between India and Maharaja of J &K in 1947.
  • In early 1980s this un-demarcated area came into military focus when an Indian Military Officer wrote about his expeditions to Himalaya without detailing military objectives.
  • Due to strategic location of Siachen and Indian claims, India wanted to capture Saltoro Ridge to control Karakorum Highway and directly cut off Pakistan and China with ultimate aim of cutting away Baltistan from Pakistan.
  • On 13 April 1984, India finally launched Operation Meghdoot to physically occupy Saltoro Ridge and two other important passes, the Sia La (6160) and Bilafond La (5550m) in the Pakistani region.
  • Siachen thus emerged on the map of the world as world’s highest battlefield. Both sides inducted heavy weapons, fire duels and engagement of parties became a routine.
  • Ceasefire was enforced in 2003 but has always been violated throughout LoC and working boundary with both sides accusing each other.


Governor’s Rule in IOK / 1986

  • The first spell of President’s Rule was in 1986.
  • Sheikh Abdullah’s son-in-law Ghulam Mohammad Shah split the National Conference legislature party, leading to the dismissal of then CM Sheikh Abdullah, and became CM of a Congress-supported NC rebel government.
  • This was Jag Mohan’s first term as Governor, sent by the Congress government in New Delhi. Facing a public backlash, the Congress eventually withdrew its support, leading to Governor’s rule, followed by President’s Rule.

Disputed State Elections in Indian Occupied J&K Led to Kashmir resistance / March 1987

  • Farooq Abdullah won the elections. The Muslim United Front (MUF) alleged that the elections have been rigged.
  • The freedom struggle in the valley increased in momentum from this point on, given the consistent failure of democracy and limited employment opportunities.
  • The MUF candidate Mohammad Yousuf Shah was not only cheated in the rigged elections, but also imprisoned and he later became Syed Salahuddin, chief of Hizb-ul-Mujahedin.
  • His election aides called the HAJY group –Abdul Hamid Shaikh, Ashfaq Majid Wani, Javed Ahmed Mir and Mohammed Yasin Malik- joined the JKLF. India accused Pakistan of fomenting the insurgency by dispatching fighters across the Line of Control, which Pakistan denied.
  • The year 1988, saw widespread violence and protests in Kashmir. In July 1988 three bomb blasts rocked Sri Nagar.
  • Many members of the Muslim United Front quit the assembly. The same year also saw the creation of Hizbul Mujahideen.
  • In December 1988, the daughter of Union Home Minister Mufti Muhammad Sayeed was kidnapped and five Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front leaders were released in exchange for her release. Sumit Ganguly thus describes the year in Kashmiri politics.
  • The targets of violence were carefully chosen and the objectives of the perpetrators well exceeded the limited goal of removing the CongressFarooq Abdullah regime. On 21 December 1988, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi signed the “Non-Nuclear Attack Agreement” in Islamabad. The treaty was ratified by the parliaments of India and Pakistan on 27 January 1991.



Intensification of Armed resistance

  • Armed resistance to Indian rule in the Kashmir valley began in 1989. Muslim political parties, after accusing the state government of rigging the 1987 state legislative elections, formed activist wings.
  • Armed resistance to Indian rule continued, spearheaded by formerly imprisoned MUF’ (Muslim United Front) members.
  • Strikes took up one-third of the year’s working days and the State Assembly election was boycotted – turnout was under 5 percent.
  • Mufti Sayeed was then Home Minister. His daughter’s release was secured five days later in exchange of 5 hardcore JKLF Leaders.

Suspension of State Legislature

  • The Indian government brought Kashmir under its direct control in Jan 1990.
  • The state legislature was suspended, the government was removed and the former Director General of the Indian Secret Service, Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), Mr. Jagmohan was appointed governor.

Imposition of Armed Forces Special Powers Act in IOK

  • Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), 1958 is an act of the Parliament of India that grants special powers to the Indian Armed Forces to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”. India again imposed Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • A curfew was imposed in most cities. India refused to allow any United Nations official to visit Kashmir in Feb 1990.
  • The Acts have received criticism from several sections for alleged concerns about human rights violations in the regions of its enforcement alleged to have happened.
  • AFSPA can be imposed if the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir or the Central Government, is of opinion that the whole or any part of the State is in such a disturbed and dangerous condition.
  • Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah resigned on January 18, 1990, and the Indian government placed the state of Jammu and Kashmir under presidential rule on January 19, 1990.

Massacres (Indian killings) in IOK

  • The Gawkadal massacre was named after the Gawkadal bridge in Srinagar, Kashmir, where, on 21 January 1990, the Indian paramilitary troops of the Central Reserve Police Force opened fire on a group of Kashmiri protesters in what has been described by some authors as “the worst massacre in Kashmiri history”.
  • Indian authorities put the official death toll for the massacre at 28. International human rights organizations and scholars estimate that at least 50, and likely over 100 protesters were killed—some by gunshot wounds, other by drowning after they jumped into the river in fear.
  • Handwara massacre: On January 25, 1990, two BSF patrolling parties in Handwara indiscriminately fired at peaceful protesters and killed 25 people. Many people were injured.
  • Zakoora and Tengpora massacre: Indian forces killed 33 protesters and injured 47 on 1 March 1990 at Zakoora Crossing and Tengpora Bypass Road in Srinagar. The killers were not punished.
  • Hawal massacre: At the funeral of Mirwaiz Muhammad Farooq on May 21, 1990 over 60 civilians were killed by paramilitary forces and hundreds injured in the indiscriminate firing on the funeral procession.
  • Sopore massacre: On 6 January 1993 Indian troops killed 55 civilians in the town of Sopore and set fire to many homes and buildings.
  • Bijbehara massacre: On 22 October 1993 the Indian Army killed 51 civilians during protests over the siege of the Hazratbal Mosque. 25 of those killed were students. None of the accused were punished.
  • Kupwara massacre: On 27 January 1994 the Indian Army fired at and killed 27 civilians, mainly traders, in Kupwara district. Survivors say that the soldiers carried out the massacre to punish people for observing shutdown on January 26.

Ban on UN officials in IOK

  • India refused to allow any United Nations official to visit Kashmir.
  • Despite pressure from League of Human Rights and other humanitarian organizations the Indian forces have not desisted from using torture and sequestration of political opponents and using methods that defy imagination.

Refugee Influx / Enactment of Jammu and Kashmir Disputed Areas Act-1990

  • Refugees started pouring into Pakistan from Occupied Kashmir. Mirwaiz Molvi Mohammed Farooq assassinated; violence continued. His funeral procession was also fired upon killing 50 people.
  • The largest political rally in Kashmir yet at the funeral of Ashfaq Wani, Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front leader. Under enactment act, India’s security forces personnel had extraordinary powers over anyone who was suspected of disturbing the peace or harboring militants or arms. Same day President’s rule was imposed in IOK.

Important developments in terms of Freedom struggle (January 1992)

  • BJP leader Ekta Yatra was allowed to hoist the Indian flag in Lal chowk, under total curfew and massive security.
  • The violence continued spreading to the areas of Jammu province like Doda. Jammu and Kashmir Hizbul Mujahedeen (JKHM) which strived for merger of J&K with Pakistan increased its strength dramatically. Differences arise between JKHM and JKLF.
  • Allegations of human rights violations by the Indian soldiers increased. Amnesty International was barred from going to the Kashmir valley.

Formation of APHC (March 1993)

  • All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) or Tehreek e Hurriyat, an alliance of 26 political, social and religious organizations was formed on 9 March 1993, as a united political front to raise the cause of Kashmiri separatism in the Kashmir conflict.
  • The alliance has historically been viewed positively by Pakistan as it contested the claim of the Indian government over the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The Hurriyat is committed to self-determination for Kashmiris and fighting Indian rule by peaceful means and has thus far refused to participate in Jammu & Kashmir’s elections, although it is deeply divided in whether the ultimate objective is independence or accession to Pakistan.
  • The APHC enjoys an observer’s status in the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC).

Hazratbal Siege / Charrar Shareef Incident

  • On 22 October 1993, the eighth day of the siege, around 10,000 to 15,000 protesters gathered in the courtyard of the Jamia Masjid of Bijbehara after finishing Friday prayers.
  • The protesters marched through the streets shouting pro-independence slogans, demanding an end to the Hazratbal siege and demonstrating against an earlier incident of firing on protesters near the Hazratbal shrine.
  • Indian forces besieged 65 people including women and children for 32 days without essential commodities including water.
  • Anti-India protests overwhelm the Kashmir Valley in the wake of the destruction of the 650-year-old mausoleum of Sheikh Nooruddin Wali (R.A.) and a mosque next to it.
  • India accused Pakistan of being behind the destruction of a shrine in Kashmir and issued a warning against interference in its internal affairs. Over 250 houses were also burnt in the town.

Indo-Pak talks

  • India and Pakistan began negotiations after three years. Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary, Shamshad Ahmed, and India’s Foreign Secretary, Salman Haider, met at the negotiating table for the first time in three years.
  • The issue of Kashmir was high on the agenda.

Islamabad Agreement / 19-23 Jun 1997

  • Ninth round of secretary level talks took place. Pakistan and India pinpointed eight issues to be discussed in future talks including the issue of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said the country maintains its stand on Kashmir & Kashmir is one of eight major issues.

Continued Violence

  • Riots after Jamia Mosque desecration on 12 Oct 1997: Angry anti-India demonstration were sparked by the desecration of the historic Jamia Mosque in Srinagar by Indian troops, who besieged the mosque, entered it wearing their boots and carried out an extensive search for three hours.

Pakistan and India go nuclear (May 1998)

  • The Indian Pokhran-II test on 11 and 13 May and the Pakistani Chagai-I test on 28 and 30 May 1998.

UNSC Resolution 1172 (6 June 1998)

  • United Nations Security Council resolution 1172, adopted unanimously on 6 June 1998, after hearing of nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan in May 1998, the Council condemned the tests and demanded that both countries refrain from engaging in further tests.
  • The two countries reacted angrily to the adoption of the resolution, with the Indian Foreign Ministry describing it as “coercive and unhelpful” while Pakistan said the presence of nuclear weapons in South Asia now a fact.
  • The Government of India noted that the “UN Security Council has recognized that bilateral dialogue has to be the basis of India-Pakistan relations and mutually acceptable solutions have to be found for outstanding issues including Kashmir. This is in keeping with our position.”



Lahore Declaration

  • Lahore Declaration was a bilateral agreement and governance treaty between India and Pakistan.
  • The treaty was signed on 21 February 1999, at the conclusion of a historic summit in Lahore, and ratified by the parliaments of both countries the same year.
  • Soon after his visit to Lahore, the Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee stated that ‘Kashmir is an integral part of India and not a single area of Indian soil would be given away’.


Indo Pak Kargil War

  • The Kargil War, fought by India and Pakistan in the Kargil district of Kashmir.
  • The Kargil conflict lasted from May to July 1999. Though it was confined to a small geographical location, it got a great deal of attention at the global level as it could have easily spread and even resulted in a nuclear exchange.
  • The US played a key role in de-escalation after Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif visited Washington and met President Bill Clinton.


Chittisinghpura Incident / March 2000

  • Around the time of US President Clinton’s visit to India, unidentified gunmen shot down 36 Sikhs at Chittisinghpura.
  • India blamed foreign militants. Kashmiris blame renegade militants employed by Indian security forces. No judicial inquiry has been conducted till date.
  • India announced a ceasefire in Kashmir which continued through May 2001.
  • APHC welcomed the ceasefire but stated that the ceasefire will not be effective unless it is supplemented with unconditional dialogues to resolve the Kashmir dispute and an end to human right violations by the Indian forces.
  • The Hizb declared a unilateral ceasefire in July which was withdrawn only two weeks later, following India’s refusal to include Pakistan in any trilateral talks over the Kashmir dispute proposed by the Kashmiri freedom fighters.


The Agra Summit

  • The Agra summit was a historic meeting between India and Pakistan which lasted from 14–16 July 2001. It was organized with the aim of resolving longstanding issues between India and Pakistan.
  • At this meeting, a proposal was made to drastically reduce nuclear arsenals, and other issues involving the Kashmir dispute, and cross-border terrorism. However, the negotiations broke down and the process was collapsed so the Agra treaty was never signed.
  • India and Pakistan failed to arrive at a joint agreement at Agra Summit, given the deadlock on Kashmir.
  • India accused Pakistan for engaging in cross-border terrorism. Pakistan denied the accusations.


9/11 Terror Attacks in US

  • On 11 September 2001, 19 terrorists on a suicide mission took over control of 4 passenger airplanes and used it as bombs on several targets in the United States.
  • Two of the airplanes were used in an attack on the “Twin Towers” of the World Trade Center in New York, resulting in their total destruction.
  • Another airplane was crashed into the Pentagon, the Headquarters of the US Ministry of Defense.
  • The fourth plane crashed near Pittsburgh without hitting any particular target (possibly due to some resistance from crew members and passengers). This tragedy took the lives of 2,973 people.


Indian narrative to link terrorism and freedom struggle

  • India argued that resistance in IHK was primarily an issue of terrorism and that Pakistan was sponsoring and supporting “cross-border terrorism” in IOK.
  • Even before 9/11 and US War on terrorism, India had consistently accused Pakistan of waging “proxy war”, “low intensity conflict’ and ‘cross-border terrorism’ in IOK.
  • India strongly contested Pakistan’s inclusion in the US war on Terrorism and repeatedly urged US to include Kashmir in its war on terror.


Attacks on IOK Legislative Assembly and Indian Parliament/ Indo-Pak Stand Off

  • Freedom Fighters attacked the Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar, leaving 38 people dead. Kashmir chief minister Farooq Abdullah urged the Indian 29 government to launch a crackdown against Mujahedeen’s training camps across the border in Pakistan.
  • Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed took the responsibility of attacks.
  • The row over Indian parliament attack triggered military build-up, diplomatic sanctions, and closure of transport links between the two nations triggering another threat of a nuclear exchange. After months of diplomacy, troops were withdrawn on either side.
  • The 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff resulted in the massing of troops on either side of the border and along the Line of Control (LoC) in the region of Kashmir.
  • This standoff was an effort to put the new concept of limited war in practice. The Indians were trying to dabble with the dangerous idea of winning a nuclear war with Pakistan during the standoff.
  • The conflict started soon after the parliament attack when India launched operation Parakram.
  • It was the largest military buildup after the Second World War as about one million troops were mobilized by the two adversaries.
  • Militants attack an army camp in IOK, killing more than 30 people and ruining a new effort to ease the tension between India and Pakistan.
  • India’s Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee visited the front lines. In a speech to soldiers on the border he said that the time was right for a decisive battle.
  • Abdul Ghani Lone, a leading and popular moderate Hurriyat leader was assassinated by unidentified gunmen.
  • It was instructive to note that Mirwaiz Maulvi Farooq had been assassinated by unidentified gunmen exactly 12 years back. On both occasions, India blamed Pakistan sponsored militants while Kashmiris blamed Indian sponsored renegades.


APHC – Indian Kashmir Committee talks / August 2002

  • In anticipation of elections, India formed a Kashmir Committee of prominent leaders to negotiate with the Hurriyat over their participation in elections.
  • The Hurriyat responded favorably to the negotiations, while repeating its position that no Hurriyat leader would participate in elections without international monitors.
  • Ram Jaith Malani Head of the Committee accepted Kashmir as a disputed territory that needed immediate resolution as a foundation for PakistanIndia relations.


Bloody Elections in Kashmir / September-October 2002

  • Elections for the IOJ&K were held in Sep-Oct 2002 in four phases.
  • About 500 people were killed during the blood-soaked election campaign.
  • Mufti Mohammad Sayeed became Chief Minister of Jammu Kashmir after the elections.
  • Jammu & Kashmir National Conference was the single largest party but lacked majority.
  • The Jammu and Kashmir People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the Indian National Congress (Congress) formed a coalition government with PDP’s Mufti Mohammad Sayeed serving as the Chief Minister for the first three years and Congress’s Ghulam Nabi Azad for the next three years.
  • The Panthers Party formed part of the ruling coalition with Harsh Dev Singh as the party’s first cabinet minister.
  • Electronic Voting Machines were used for the first time in Jammu Kashmir assembly elections in 2002.
  • The election was seen as a victory of the ballot over the bullet. United States lauded 2002 elections of the state. There were 1.7 million voters in the state for 2002 elections.


Governor’s Rule / October 2002

  • IOK was put under Governor’s Rule after caretaker CM Farooq Abdullah refused to take charge. Mufti Muhammad Saeed, however, was sworn in on 2 nd Nov in his place. Congress took 15 days in cobbling up numbers to form the government.



Ceasefire along LOC

  • A ceasefire took effect along LOC between Pakistan and India leading to a prolonged period of quiet.
  • General Musharraf announced Pakistan’s readiness to go beyond its stated position in disputes with India and declared to unilaterally remove ban on overflights.


Islamabad Declaration

  • To carry the process of normalization forward the President of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India agreed to commence the process of the Composite Dialogue in February 2004.
  • The two leaders were confident that the resumption of the Composite Dialogue will lead to peaceful settlement of all bilateral issues, including Jammu and Kashmir, to the satisfaction of both sides.
  • The two leaders agreed that constructive dialogue would promote progress towards the common objective of peace, security and economic development for their peoples and for future generations.


Erection of fence along LOC / Peace talks

  • India erected a multi layered fence backed by surveillance grid along LOC to curtail border crossing and alleged intrusions. Manmohin Singh in a televised address, commited to actively pursue composite dialogue with Pakistan including J&K.
  • Prime Minister Singh and President Musharraf met in New York during UN General Assembly session for the first round of peace talks. Suggested considering identification of regions within Kashmir to demilitarize and grant independent status or give them under UN Control.


Muzaffarabad-Srinagar Bus Service 2005

  • Srinagar–Muzaffarabad Bus service connects Srinagar, the capital of the Indian occupied territory of Jammu and Kashmir with Muzaffarabad, the capital of the Pakistan-administered territory of Azad Kashmir across the Line of Control (LoC).
  • In a path breaking step, Muzaffarabad-Srinagar Bus commenced to bridge the divide between Kashmiris on both sides of LOC.


APHC Leadership Crossed LOC

  • A delegation of the moderate faction of the All Party Hurriyet Conference (APHC) headed by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq and the Yasin Malik crossed over the LoC into AJK for the first time. Since then these leaders have made further visits, either individually or as a delegation, mainly through the Wagah–Attari crossing point (that is, not across the LoC).
  • These visits allowed them to interact with the Pakistani and AJK political leadership, civil society, the media and the Kashmiri militant leadership.
  • They explored ideas on how to resolve the Kashmir conflict and contributed to a consensus building process within and between political and dissident forces in and across Kashmir.
  • The Cross-LoC bus service began with two bus services crossing the LoC. Five crossing points were opened, which restored movement of the people across the dividing line


Rawlakot-Poonch Bus Service 2006

  • Pakistan and India agreed to facilitate travel between the two parts of disputed Jammu and Kashmir by providing entry permits to divided Kashmiri families to travel across the Line of Control.
  • Both countries started bus services between the two divisions of Jammu & Kashmir in April 2005 for families to reunite and truck service in October 2008, for businesses to flourish.
  • The Poonch-Rawalakot bus service was started on 20 June 2006 through Tatrinote and Chakan Da Bagh point.
  • A total of 87 persons on first day crossed the Chakan Da Bagh point on foot after coming on board the two buses on either side.


Transfer of IOK Land to Amrnath Shrine Board and Opening of Trade Routes

  • On 26 May 2008, the government of India and the state Government of Jammu and Kashmir reached an agreement to transfer 99 acres (0.40 km2 ) of forest land to the Shri Amarnathji Shrine Board (SASB) in the main Kashmir valley to set up temporary shelters and facilities for Hindu pilgrims.
  • This caused a controversy, with demonstrations from the Kashmir valley against the land transfer and protests from the Jammu region supporting it. 33 The largest demonstration saw more than 500,000 protesters at a single rally, among the largest in Kashmir’s history.
  • It sparked the most widespread and sustained mass uprising against Indian rule since 1990.
  • Armed police fire on the protesters, and the only functional road between Kashmir and India was blockaded.
  • The Cross-LoC travel initiative led to greater urge among Kashmiris on both sides for the resumption of Cross-LoC trade.
  • In 2006 an understanding was reached between the two countries to start cross LoC trade in selected primary products of Kashmiri origin.
  • In their 21 July 2008 meeting, the foreign secretaries of the two countries agreed to open the route for limited trade.
  • The Working Group on Cross-LoC CBMS in its meeting on 22 September finalized the terms and conditions for the trade between the two parts of Kashmir, consisting of roughly 21 items.
  • India rushed it through as one way of handling the crisis in the Kashmir Valley that erupted around the land-for-Amarnath controversy, and the subsequent economic blockade of the Kashmir Valley by the right-wing Hindu activists of the Jammu region.
  • The blockade led to the demand for opening of Srinagar-Muzaffarabad road and “Muzaffarabad March” call that left a number of people including an APHC leader dead in the police firing.
  • When the trade began, the potential problems were anticipated and outlined by the business communities in both parts of Kashmir.


Akhnor Carnage and Another Wave of Protests

  • Over 7000 Hindu Hooligans attacked Muslim community setting ablaze 13 houses in Aug 2008.
  • Large protests erupted across the Kashmir Valley, accusing the CPRF of the rapes and murders in May 2009. The protests are met with force and an undeclared curfew was imposed in the Shopian district.
  • Tufail Ahmad Mattoo, a 17 years’ youth, was struck in the head and killed by a teargas canister fired at close range, while walking home from school.
  • His death set off another summer of protest, during which a military curfew was imposed and more than a hundred Kashmiris were killed in June 2010.



Operation Sadbhavana

  • Operation Sadbhavana, also referred to as Operation Goodwill had been launched in Jammu and Kashmir by the Indian Army under their Military Civic Action programs, aimed at “Winning the Hearts and Minds” (WHAM) of the people in the region.
  • The catchphrase of the operation was “Jawan aur Awam, Aman Hai Muqaam” (peace is the destination for both the people and the soldier).
  • Initially launched under Northern Command in 1998, it gained momentum in 2012.


Mass Graves / 2012

  • An inquiry by the police investigation team of the Jammu & Kashmir Human Rights Commission found 2,730 bodies dumped into unmarked graves in four out of 14 districts of the state.
  • Thousands of Kashmiris were forcibly disappeared during the last two decades of violence and their whereabouts are unknown. Maulana Shoukat, a prominent liberation proponent and president of Jamiat-e-Ahl-e-Hadith was targeted in a bomb blast.


Indian Supreme Court on fake encounters in IOK

  • On March 25, 2000, five men were picked up by the officers of the Indian Army’s Rashtriya Rifles in a conspiracy to display a quick breakthrough in the Chittisingh Pora massacre of March 20, in which 36 Sikhs were gunned down by gunmen.
  • The massacre took place at the time of US President Bill Clinton’s India visit.
  • On 19 March 2012, The CBI (central Bureau of Investigation) told the Supreme Court of India that the encounter at Pathribal in Jammu and Kashmir was fake.
  • The Supreme Court gave the army eight weeks to decide whether officers accused of a fake encounter in Pathribal in the state of Jammu and Kashmir should be tried by court-martial proceedings or by regular criminal courts.
  • In June 2012, the Army conveyed its readiness to a Srinagar court to try the accused personnel in the military court.
  • On 23 January 2014, the Indian Army closed this Case as evidence collected by it did not establish a prima facie case against any of the accused.


Visit of Indian President to IOK

  • Complete strike was observed in occupied Kashmir to convey to the visiting Indian President, Pranab Mukherjee, that the Kashmiris reject India’s illegal occupation of the territory.


Hanging of Afzal Guru and plight of Kashmiri students in India / Feb 2013

  • India secretly hanged 43-year-old Kashmiri Muhammad Afzal Guru at Tehar jail New Delhi.
  • The authorities imposed curfew in Occupied Kashmir to prevent people from holding demonstrations against the judicial murder of Muhammad Afzal Guru.
  • The puppet government continued to impose curfew in the valley.
  • Scores of people were injured when Indian forces used extensive force on protestors.
  • Naib Subedar of Indian Army Kidnapped and molested a 12th class girl student in Baramulla.
  • Hindu extremists beat up three Kashmiri students identified as Gulzar, Aamir and Maqsood, in a hostel of Bundelkhand University in Uttar Paradesh, India.
  • Four boys, Amjad Ahmed Khan, Momin Ahmad Rather, Kasier and Mehrajudin, were injured in a blast at Aragam, Chatti Bandi in Bandipore.
  • The Indian police arrested Tehreek-e-Hurriyet leader, Muhammad Asraf Sehrai, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Ganai and Sheikh Mushtaq Ahmad, from Newa when they were on their way to Changam area of Pulwama to attend a ‘Seerat’ Conference.
  • Kashmiri students, who had cheered for Pakistan cricket team during Asia Cup game were thrown out a UP University followed by registration of fake cases.
  • The Voice of Victims (VoV), a local human rights forum, in report revealed that in Occupied Kashmir around 130 unidentified persons killed by troops and police buried in graveyards of Sambal area of Sonawari.
  • A total of 166 people lost their lives due to violent incidents in Jammu & Kashmir. Killing of the civilian persons were carried out by the Indian Forces.


Modi Visit Kashmir / July 2014

  • Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif invited the Indian government to hold a peaceful dialogue to resolve the Kashmir dispute according to the aspirations of the Kashmiri people, as people across Pakistan, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and Gilgit-Baltistan observed Kashmir Solidarity Day with zeal and fervor expressing solidarity with the people of occupied Kashmir.
  • Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said that “Pakistan was ready to consider any proposal for the establishment of peace. We are ready to discuss and resolve all outstanding issues with India including the Kashmir dispute. The future of Pakistan and Kashmir is linked to each other. Uncertainty and confrontation will continue in the region till a peaceful resolution of the Kashmir issue.”
  • Complete shutdown was observed, on the occasion of Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi’s visit to Kashmir to convey a message that Kashmiris reject India’s illegal occupation of their homeland.


Debate on Kashmir at British House of Commons

  • A special debate was held on state of human rights in IOK at British House of Commons irking India.
  • Britain’s foreign office minister Hugo Swire told the parliament that “any solution should be between the two governments of India and Pakistan. We welcome progress made last September during a meeting of both prime ministers in New York. The British government does help and we have had discussions on human rights as recently as last month. This is a long-running conflict, and we stand by to help; but ultimately it can be resolved only by the two countries in question.”
  • Calling the Kashmir issue a threat to regional and global peace, British MP David Ward informed the backbench business committee that new Indian government has been “quite aggressive in terms of its stance towards Kashmir” which was “opening up a whole new area of uncertainty”.


State Elections, BJP Joins State Government and Ban on Cow Slaughter in IOK

  • Despite boycott calls by separatist Hurriyat leaders, the state election saw the highest voter turnout in the 25 years since insurgency erupted in the region. Indian authorities claimed that this was a vote of the Kashmiri people in favor of democracy of India.
  • Independent observers attribute it to desire of Kashmiris to improve their social life under Indian oppressive policies.
  • India’s ruling BJP party was sworn into government in IOK for first time in coalition with local People’s Democratic Party, with the latter’s Mufti Mohammad Sayeed as Chief Minister.



Employment of Renegade Elements to Malign Freedom Struggle

  • Renegade militants supported by the Indian security forces were used for extrajudicial executions of militants (besides human right activists, journalists and other civilians) and later conveniently dismissed as “intergroup rivalries”.
  • The phenomenon of renegade militants has been extensively documented by Human Rights Watch
  • Many of these groups have been responsible for grave human rights abuses, including summary executions, torture, and illegal detention as well as election-related intimidation of voters. They are never arrested or prosecuted and go scot-free.


The Burhan Wani Shaheed

  • Burhan Muzaffar Wani was a commander of Kashmiri liberation movement.
  • He gained popularity through his social media presence, which modernized the image of militancy in Kashmir, and made it more relatable to Kashmiri youth.
  • He was martyred by Indian security forces on 8 July 2016, sparking protests across Kashmir.
  • These resulted in the deaths of more than 96 people and injuries in over 15,000 civilians and 4,000 security personnel.
  • The unrest following his death was described as the worst in the region since 2010, with Kashmir being placed under 53 consecutive days of curfew, which was only completely lifted on 31 August 2016


Impact of Burhan’s Martyrdom and Impact on Kashmir Freedom Struggle

  • The role played by Burhan Wani and the impact of his killing is a unique episode in the history of Kashmiri freedom struggle.
  • The martyrdom of Burhan Wani has been termed by Indian security forces as their biggest success in India’s fight against the Kashmiri armed rebellion.
  • His martyrdom resulted in inspiring more Kashmiri youth to join the armed rebellion against the Indian forces.
  • Kashmiri youth has joined the renewed armed rebellion due to the failure of finding a solution to the Kashmir issue.
  • The continuous torture and human rights violations have accelerated the pace of the Kashmiris joining the armed rebellion.
  • Pakistan continued to raise the Kashmir issue with top UN officials and submitted letters to the UN chief Ban Ki-moon and UNSC President expressing concern over human rights violations in the IOK after the martyrdom of Burhan.
  • Pakistan observed a ‘black day’ on July 20 to protest against the killings of innocent Kashmiris in the IOK by the Indian forces.
  • The Pakistani decision to observe a ‘black day’ angered India, which accused Pakistan of interfering in India’s internal affairs and backing terrorism.


The Uri Incident, So Called Surgical Strikes and Violation Sparked by Kathua Molestation

  • There was an attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 29th September 2016, near the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir
  • It was reported as “the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades. India tried to stage a drama of Cross Border Action across LOC to accrue political and diplomatic mileage out of it but to no avail.
  • India accused Pakistan for this incident by claiming that the weapons and equipment that was used in Uri attack had Pakistani markings.
  • Pakistan declared this attack as self-generated and called Indian allegations as long-time habit.
  • India tried to create a perception of accommodative policies in the garb of this announcement to appease and complement US policy towards Afghanistan.
  • Some analysts believe that Indian having created a semblance of controlled security environment in IOK is trying to negotiate from position of dominance using an intelligence operator.
  • An eight-year-old Muslim girl was kidnapped, sedated and gang-raped by eight men in a Hindu temple in occupied Kashmir.
  • Police say the attack had been planned for over a month as a way to terrify the Bakarwals, a Muslim community of nomadic herders, into leaving the area in the Kashmir Valley.
  • It exposed the deep religious and cultural divides which exist between Muslims and Hindus in occupied Kashmir and aggravated fierce protests in the region and across the country between Hindus and Muslims.
  • A possible explanation for the cease-fire was evident in a new police report on the conflict in IOK which said that an Indian atrocity this year had doubled the number of local recruits to the armed groups. It is an age-old story. Heavy-handed tactics may hold territory, but they lose the population.
  • Kashmiri leaders called for a shutdown in IOK as Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid a daylong visit to review development work and inaugurate road projects.


1st OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights) report on HRVs in IOK and re-imposition of Governor Rule in IOK

  • The report implicated India for its aggressive and atrocious policies in IOK and demanded an inquiry into its heavy handed treatment of Kashmiris.
  • Same day Shujaat Bukhari who released the report in IOK on Twitter and was a proponent of freedom was shot to death by a group of assailants.
  • The report highlighted excessive use of force, indiscriminate killing of civilians, blinding by pellet guns, cases of mass graves and sexual violence by India in IOK which constitute crimes against humanity and must be investigated.
  • According to the Jammu and Kashmir Coalition of Civil Society (JKCCS), around 160 civilians were killed in 2018, which is believed to be the highest number in over one decade.
  • India imposed Governor’s rule in IOK after a clever move by BJP to break its alliance with PDP.
  • In the absence of coalition of willing being present, the imposition of Governor’s Rule became inevitable thus leaving the field open for a BJP led central government to control outcome of next elections.
  • CM Mufti contended that IOK was not an enemy territory as being perceived by few. “We have always said muscular security policy will not work in J&K.



Casualty Intensive Pulwama Incident, So Called Indian Surgical Strike 2 and Pakistan’s Response

  • On 14 February 2019, a convoy of vehicles carrying security personnel on the Jammu Srinagar National Highway was attacked by a vehicleborne suicide bomber at Lethpora (near Awantipora) in the Pulwama district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
  • On 14 February 2019, a suicide bomber crashed a car packed with 300kg of explosives into a convoy of Central Reserve Police Forces (CRPF), killing more than 44 Indian paramilitary personnel, and injuring at least 70.
  • The attack took place in Pulwama, about 20km from Srinagar, capital of Jammu and Kashmir territory it controls. India vowed retaliation and revenge and stated that Pakistan was the main culprit behind this attack.
  • It was getting worse when Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), whose stated mission is to “free Kashmir from India”, claimed responsibility for the bombing.
  • Following that issue, 12 Indian Air Force Mirage 2000 jets dropped bombs on so-called Jaish-e-Mohammed camps across the Line of Control (LoC) in Muzafarabad sector at 3.30am.
  • On this incident, Pakistan stated that it will retaliate because India has violated its territorial sovereignty.
  • On 27 February 2019, Pakistan retaliated by conducting effective airstrikes, just across the unofficial border that divides the Himalayan region of Kashmir. PAF op swift retort remained successful thereby shooting down two IAF aircrafts and arresting a pilot. Pakistan released the Indian fighter pilot to easing the immediate risk of further escalation.
  • Prime Minister Imran Khan calling it a “peace gesture,” where India claimed that Pakistan just adhered to the Geneva Convention.
  • Prime Minister Imran Khan’s speech articulated that he wants to resolve this recent attack through dialogue to avoid war by any means, though if India attack on Pakistan, they will also retaliate in response to India.


Modi’s Re-Election, Kashmir Besieged and Abrogation of Articles 35 A and 370

  • Narendra Modi contested the 2019 election in India on the issue of changing the special status of Kashmir and settlement of non-Kashmiri Hindus in Jammu and Kashmir as the agenda of BJP’s manifesto.
  • This narrative is materialized through revoking article 370 and 35A in order to alter the special status of Kashmir. Article 370 of the Constitution of India, which accorded special status to Jammu and Kashmir, was abrogated by the ruling BJP-led government on August 5, 2019.
  • The security situation is at high alert in the Jammu Kashmir valley since then.
  • BJP wants to seek majority in the Kashmir assembly through the settlement of non-Kashmiris in Jammu Kashmir, which is India’s planned strategy of demographic engineering in Kashmir.
  • Article 370 was the basis of Jammu and Kashmir’s accession to the Indian union at a time when erstwhile princely states had the choice to join either India or Pakistan after their independence from the British rule in 1947.The article, which came into effect in 1949, exempts Jammu and Kashmir state from the Indian constitution.
  • Article 35A which was introduced after the adoption of Article 370 in the constitution, specifically deals with the rights and privileges of the permanent residents of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The article permits the local legislature in IOK to define permanent residents of the region. It forbids outsiders from permanently settling, buying land, holding local government jobs or winning education scholarships in the region.


Laddakh, Jammu and Kashmir Declared Union Territories, Diplomatic Maneuver by Pakistan

  • India has divided Jammu Kashmir into two separate administrative units including Hindu majority Ladakh and Muslim majority Jammu Kashmir as union territories along communal lines.
  • In the new arrangement, Jammu and Kashmir is declared one territory, and Ladakh, which borders China, is separate.
  • The two new union territories are now ruled directly from the capital Delhi.
  • It’s part of a controversial move announced in August to tighten the Indian government’s control over the part of Kashmir it administers.
  • R K Mathur and Girish Chandra Murmu were sworn in as governors of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir respectively.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi at a public rally in the western state of Gujarat said that “Now the real participation of co-operative federalism will be seen. New highways, new railway lines, new schools, new hospitals will take the development of the people of Jammu and Kashmir to new heights”.
  • Union territories have far less autonomy from the federal government than states do.
  • Pakistan has given measured diplomatic response to India’s aggrandizement agenda on Kashmir to exert international pressure on India by internationalizing the dispute as a grave humanitarian crisis.
  • Important decisions were taken in National Security Council (NSC) meeting held under the leadership of Prime Minister Imran Khan after India’s abrogation of article 370.
  • Pakistan has decided to down grade diplomatic relations and suspend trade with India. Pakistan has further expressed its revulsion to this Indian action by indicating a will to revise existing bilateral treaties in order to revert status quo relations with India.
  • Prime Minister Imran Khan has instructed Pakistan’s army to maintain vigilance along the line of control and international border to thwart away any Indian aggression.
  • India has reserved 24 seats for Azad Jammu Kashmir region (affiliated with Pakistan) in Indian union territory which reflects the future trend of India’s provocative actions and preemptive strategy against Pakistan.
  • India is not ready for a dialogue on Kashmir due to its weak diplomatic position under UNSC resolutions which support the right of selfdetermination for the Kashmiri nation.
  • India has resorted to violence in Kashmir in order to curb the freedom movement in the guise of national security. India wants to control and divide occupied Kashmir.


World Acknowledges HR Violations in IOK and the Siege Continues

  • A curfew is imposed in the valley after India’s stringent measures for evacuation of Amarnath Yatra pilgrims and foreign tourists from the valley which has created panic in the region.
  • People are facing massive paramilitary operation in the valley which will worsen the situation in the coming months by creating a grave humanitarian crisis as blatant human rights violations are under progress in Jammu Kashmir.
  • Pakistan has preempted signs of Indian aggression and the foreign minister has written a letter to the UN Secretary General to register Pakistan’s apprehensions on India’s use of cluster bombs on LoC and HR’s violations in the valley.
  • Civilian citizens were targeted in this attack which is a violation of humanitarian law. This trend reflects India’s frustration and attempt to create a likely scenario of military crisis on Pakistan’s border through any false flag operation to deflect criticism on Kashmir.
  • India wants to create diplomatic leverage for it through such staged drama to pressurize Pakistan and scuttle international pressure on Kashmir.
  • PM Imran Khan during his speech in UNGA thoroughly exposed Indian nefarious designs behind abrogation of Article 370 and 35A in IOK. Imran Khan systematically exposed the Indian mindset on Kashmir. He told the world “Narendra Modi is a lifetime member of the fascist RSS, an extremist Hindu organization that was behind the murder of Mahatma Gandhi in 1948. It was this ideology that drove Narendra Modi to massacre around 2,000 Muslims in Gujarat in 2002. Now it is the same ideology that is behind the Indian government’s lockdown in Kashmir”.
  • Amnesty International in a statement said that it documented a clear pattern of the Indian authorities arbitrarily detaining activists, politicians and even children if they are thought to hold dissenting opinions besides using excessive force and intimidation as the crackdown in occupied Kashmir continues.
  • After conducting interviews in the occupied territory in the last six weeks, the Amnesty International India demanded the immediate release of all detainees held without charge or trial, and a complete lifting of the communication blackout in the territory.
  • A large number of Pakistanis, friends of Pakistan from other communities and media representatives attended an event organized by Pakistan High Commission in London to express solidarity with the oppressed people of occupied Kashmir.
  • On the occasion, the photos documented by various international institutions and human rights organizations depicting Indian atrocities on the Kashmiris were displayed.
  • Kashmir Human Rights Foundation, a California-based non-profit organization, held an event at Capital-Hill to brief key rights activists about the prevailing situation in occupied Kashmir. The briefing also saw the attendance of more than 130 congressional staff members. The panelists acquainted them with the Kashmir dispute, the demand of right to self-determination and human rights abuses being perpetrated by Indian troops in occupied Kashmir.
Close Search Window