Pakistan- Azerbaijan Relations
Pakistan and Azerbaijan share strong historic, cultural and religious affinities. The diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on June 9, 1992. Year 2022 marked the 30th anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. Azerbaijan is an active member of the OIC Contact Group on Indian Illegally Occupied Jammu and Kashmir and participates in all meetings convened during the sidelines of OIC summits or Council of Foreign Ministers (CFM). Pakistan also supports Azerbaijan’s legitimate stance on the issue of Karabagh.
The two sides exchange regular high-level visits. The leadership of the two countries also meets frequently on the sidelines of various regional and international conferences.
Institutional mechanisms between Pakistan and Azerbaijan include bilateral political consultation (BPC) and Inter Governmental Commission/Joint Ministerial Commission (JMC). The 3rd round of BPC was held in Baku on 31st May, 2023. The 7th Session of the JMC was held in Baku in December 2021.
The trade between Pakistan and Azerbaijan crossed $28 million in 2022. During FY 2023, trade between Pakistan and Tajikistan stood at $US 36.46 million [Pakistan’s exports worth US$ 12.09 million and imports worth US$24.38- source Commerce Ministry]. Pakistan exports rice, vegetables, fruits and fruit pulp, medical and pharmaceutical products, cotton fabrics and synthetic fabrics etc. to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan’s exports to Pakistan include raw cotton, chemicals, fats and oil, non-ferrous metals, etc. The two sides are negotiating Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) and a Transit Trade Agreement (TTA). Once the PTA and TTA are signed, it is expected that bilateral trade will get a significant boost as Pakistani products will become more competitive.
Pakistan was among the first countries to recognize Kazakhstan in December 1991. Diplomatic relations were established 24 February 1992. The two countries have been enjoying cordial relations – based on trust, mutual respect, and goodwill. Our two countries, in the recent past, have been interacting regularly at the Heads of State and Government as well as the Foreign Ministers level to give strategic guidance to the relationship. The meetings are mostly held on the sidelines of SCO meetings and other international events.
Pakistan and Kazakhstan, in the recent past, have been interacting regularly at the Heads of State and Government as well as the Foreign Ministers level to give strategic guidance to the relationship. The meetings are mostly held on the sidelines of SCO meetings and other international events.
The two sides have established various structured mechanisms for engagement which include:
Bilateral trade volume in 2022-23 stood at US$ 139.33 million, with balance of trade in Pakistan’s favor. Exports to Kazakhstan were US$ 132.73 million, and imports were US$ 5.58 million.
Pakistan-Kyrgyz Republic Relations
Kyrgyz Republic is a landlocked Central Asian State with mountainous terrain. Pakistan established its diplomatic relations with the Kyrgyz Republic in 1992 and opened Embassy in Bishkek in 1995. Both are regional neighbors and members of important international organizations i.e. UN, ECO, OIC, NAM, G-77, etc.
Two Institutional mechanisms exist between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan. These mechanisms set the direction for cooperation in different areas including Agriculture,Commerce, Communication, Defence, Education, Science and technology, energy, and investment.
The bilateral trade volume between the two countries was US$ 11.05 Million in FY 2022-23 (Pakistan’s Exports: US$ 10.99 Million; Pakistan’s Imports: US$ 0.069 Million). Pakistan’s major exports to Kyrgyz Republic are Pharmaceuticals, rice, garments, sports goods and surgical equipment etc.
Tajikistan, located in Central Asia, shares borders with Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and China. Pakistan enjoys friendly relations with Tajikistan since its independence in 1991. Bilateral relations, established on 6th June 1992, are based on common history, culture and faith.
Pakistan and Tajikistan have established following mechanisms:
The 5th round of BPC was held on 25 May 2021 in virtual mode. 4th meeting of JBC was held in September 2021 in Dushanbe. It was organized by the Ministry of Commerce and TDAP.
Bilateral trade between Pakistan and Tajikistan stands at US$ 24.68 million. Pakistan's exports [US$ 23.63 million] to Tajikistan include sugar, dairy products, fruit and vegetables (potato, onion & orange), rice, textile products and minerals etc. while Pakistan’s imports [US$ 1.3million] include cotton fiber, fruits, vegetables and unprocessed hides from
Turkmenistan gained independence on 27 September 1991 following the collapse of the USSR. Pakistan was the second country (after Türkiye) to recognize the independence of Turkmenistan. Formal diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 10 May 1992. There have been regular exchanges of high-level visits between the two countries.
Pakistan and Turkmenistan have established;
Bilateral trade stood at US$ 8.41 million [Pakistan exports US$ 2.234 million and imports 6.17 million]. Major Export Items to Turkmenistan include; Jute Fabric & Jute Bags, Pyrotechnic Products, Fruits & Vegetables and Pharmaceuticals. While major imports from Turkmenistan are raw cotton, cotton yarn, cotton fabrics and cotton waste, hides & skins, and chemical materials & products.
Pakistan – Uzbekistan Relations
Uzbekistan is the geographic and population center of the Central Asia. Pakistan and Uzbekistan enjoy friendly relations with Uzbekistan. The diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 10 May 1992. The two countries share historic, religious, and cultural bonds.
The two countries have established
Uzbekistan is the largest consumer market and second biggest economy in Central Asia. Uzbekistan is the first Central Asian country Pakistan has signed bilateral Transit Trade Agreement (UPTTA) and bilateral Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) on 17 items. Bilateral trade with Pakistan (Jan-Dec 2021) amounted to US$126.05 million, with US$88.18 million exports to Pakistan and US$ 37.87 million imports from Pakistan.
Quadrilateral Traffic in Transit Agreement (QTTA)
Pakistan, China, Kyrgyz Republic, and Kazakhstan signed the Quadrilateral Traffic and Transit Agreement (QTTA) on 9 March 1995. It is a transit trade deal between China, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan for facilitating transit traffic and trade. It provides an effective connectivity network between Central Asia and Gwadar port of Pakistan in the Arabian Sea.
Turkmenistan-Afghanistan- Pakistan- India (TAPI) Gas Pipeline Project
The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan- Pakistan- India (TAPI) Gas Pipeline Project aims to bring natural gas from the Galkynysh gas field in Turkmenistan into Pakistan and India through Afghanistan. The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Gas Pipeline Project (TAPI Project) is a part of the energy security plan of the Government of Pakistan. The Pipeline will transport up-to 33 billion cubic meters (bcm) (average 3.2 billion cubic feet per day (bcfd) of natural gas per year over a 30 years period. The project cost is US$ 10 billion based on feasibility study. Pakistan and Turkmenistan signed Joint Implementation Plan (JIP) on 8th June 2023. The JIP is aimed to enhance cooperation and provide necessary support to nominated entities of the two countries for early implementation of the Pakistan segment of the Project. The JIP envisages the constitution of a Senior Coordinator Committee’ (comprising of the representatives of the respective ministries and nominated entities) to expedite and oversee the project. Currently, the two sides are negotiating the Host Government Agreement (HGA).
Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan (TAP) Power Transmission Project
Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan (TAP) Power Transmission Project envisages the development of 500 KV transmission line for energy import from Turkmenistan to Pakistan. During the visit of Prime Minister to Turkmenistan in December, 2015, a trilateral MoU to facilitate export and transit of electricity from Turkmenistan to Pakistan through Afghanistan was signed. The MoU obliges the parties to initiate technical negotiations on the proposal of export of electricity. In February 2018, an Inter-Governmental Agreement for Import of Electricity from Turkmenistan to Pakistan through Afghanistan (TAP) was signed in Turkmenistan. During recent visit of TAPI delegation on 7th-8th June, 2023, meeting of Technical Working Group on TAP also took place to discuss the expedited implementation of the project.
CASA - 1000
CASA-1000 is envisaged as a Joint Venture between Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. The total estimated cost of the project is US$ 1.2 billion. It envisages the transportation of surplus electric power from Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Republic to Pakistan (1000 MW) and Afghanistan (300 MW) respectively during summer months (May to September) and under open access provision for the remaining period as the CASA System is capable for reverse flow of energy. Since the assumption of power by the Interim Government of Afghanistan, implementation of the Afghanistan portion of the project is suspended.
Trans-Afghan Railway Project
Trans-Afghan Railway Project is a multi-billion-dollar railway project which would facilitate Uzbekistan’s trade via Pakistani seaports and Pakistan’s trade with Central Asia and beyond. The Project envisions a 760 km long railway line that will connect Termez in Uzbekistan with Pakistani seaports via Afghanistan. The proposed railway line would reduce travel time by an estimated 30% as compared to road transportation. Two routes under consideration were Termez-Mazar-e-Sharif-Shashpul-Logar-Torkham and Termez-Mazar-e-Sharif-Shashpul- Logar-Karlachi. During the 13th Trilateral Meeting of Afghan, Uzbek and Pakistan Railway authorities on 17th July 2023, Termez-Mazar-e-Sharif-Shashpul-Logar-Karlachi was finalized.